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A. F. RUDOLF HOERNLE, M.A. (Oxford), Ph. D. 
•^ (Tiibingenj, C. I. E., 

Indian Educational Service (Retired Listj, Late Principal 
Calcutta Madrasah, and Fellow of the Calcutta University ; 
Ex-President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Ex-Presi- 
dent to the Board of Examiners in Oriental 
Languages, Fort William, Calcutta ; 


HERBERT A. STARK, B.A. (Calcutta;, 

Bengal Educational Service, Head Master, Calcutta Madrasah 
Late Inspector of Schools, Orissa Division ; Member of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

^Fourth Edition. Revised and Enlarged. j 


[all rights reserved.] 




1903 — PwksfV-^ation Edition. 
"^Q^^KiR-ST Edition. 


igo^, — ^SECoNny Edition. 
1906— ^^rj^'^Edition. 
^o«^TH Edition. 

, 1 906 — ^i^^ 

Printed and published at the Orissa Mission Press, Cuttack 
by Rev. R. J. Grundy, Supt. 

Prefatory Note to First Eijition. 

IN writing this History, the chief points the authors had in 
view were to present it in an interesting narrative form, as 
well as in agreement with the results of modern research, — in 
both respects (as they believe) a new departure 

'Rhe numerous inscriptions, coins, and manuscripts, dis- 
covered in late years, as well as a more extended study of 
Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian Literature have brought to light 
a mass of new facts which have greatly modified many hitherto 
accepted views of Indian History. Having for many years 
acted as Philological Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
and Numismatist Adviser to the Government of India, the 
first of the joint-authors has had special facilities for the study 
of the new information. To those who are not familiar with 
the latter, his presentation of the earlier history of India, 
comprising the first three Empires, may come as a surprise. 
Lengthy references to authorities, and discussions of rival, and 
(it may be) di.scredited theories would obviously be out of 
place in a short School History. But in order to assist 
Teachers who may be desirous of further informing themselves, 
a selected list of the best and latest writings on Indian Anti- 
quities has been added. 

The history of the Fourth and Fiftli Empires has been 
written after consulting standard works on the periods con- 
cerned, and the events recorded are those which have been 
established by the investigations of discriminative and compe- 
tent scholars of Indian History. 

November, igo6. HERBERT A. STARK. 

Prefatory Note to Fourth Edition. 

The present edition has been revised throughout, and its 
information brought up-to-date (especially in Chapters vi-viii) 
in the light of the most recent researches and discoveries up 
to 19&S. 

Septe7jiher igoH 'I^he Authors. 


'List of Recent Writings on the Early History of 

India . . [1-4] 

Matriculation History Syllabus of the Calcutta 

Uni\-ersity ... [S'S] 

Introduction. The Physical Features of India and 
some Observations thereon i-vii 

Chap. Page. 

I. — The Pre-historic Period. The .Aborigines. Be- 
fore 1500 B.C. I 
II. — The Pre-Vedic Period. The Aryans in their 

Original Home. Before 2000 B.C. 5 

[11^ — The Vcdic Period. The Aryans in the Punjab. 

About 1800 to 1000 B.C. . 7 

IV. — The Brahmanic Period. The I'nited Indo-.-Aryans 

in Northern India, .\bout 1000 to 550 B.C. 13 

V. — The Early Buddhist Period. The Greek Invasion. 
The First, or .Maurva, Empire. The Rise of Bud- 
dhism. Abt)ul 550 to 150 B.C. 22 
Vi._The Later Buddhist Period. The Parthian and 
Turki Invasions. The New Buddhism. .About 
150 B.C. to 300 A. D. 41 
VH. — The Early Hindu Period. The Second, or Gupta, 
Empire. The Brahmanic Revival. .About 300 
to 650 A. D. 55 
VIII. — The Later Hindu Period. The Ciurjara Empire. 
The Earlv Muhammadan Invasion. .About 650 
to 1200 A.D. . 67 
IX. — The Earlv Muhammadan Period. The .Muham- 
madan Conquest. The Third ( First Muhamma- 
dan), or Turki, Empire. .About 1200 to 1525 A.]). g2 
X. — The Later Muhammadan Period: — 

Section I. The Fourth Indian, or Second Muham- 
madan, or Mughal, Empire. 1526 to 1803 a.d. 107 
Section II. The Rise and the Fall of the Marathas. 127 
Section III. The Sikhs ... . . 140 
XL>— The Early Period of the Company — 

Section I. The First European Settlers. 1498 to 

1783 A.D. 153 





Section II. The struggle between the English and 
the French. 1741 to 1783 a.d. 

Section III. Robert Clive and Warren Hastings. 

174410 1778 A.D. ... ,-.S 

XII.— The Later Period of the Co,npan\-. The Building 
up of the PZnglish Empire in India. The Gover'^ 
nors-General after Hastings. 1785 to 1858 a.d. ,176 
XIII.— India under the Crown. The fifth, or British, 
P^mpire of India. The \'iceroys of India. 1858 
to 1903 A.D. ... .. , 

XIV.— India, Past and Piesent ... ... 2>4 



1. 1ST OF MAPS. 

Physical Map of Ind.a ... . Facing Introduction 

1 he Aryan Dispersion ... .. Facing page i 

Ihe Disintegration of the Gupta Empire ... '74 

The Mughal Empire in the Time of Aurangzeb 118 

British India in the Time of Lord CornwalHs " 1,7 

British India in the Time of Lord Dalhousie '" 200 


Reception of the Ambassador* 
King, Khusrii II., 

of the Persian 





chha\'i Oiiecn 

Indian Silver Coin of Alexander 

Asoka's Column 

View of Rummin Dei and the Asoka Column 

Asoka Inscription 

Buddha under the Tree 

View of the Oldest Stupa at Sanchi 

Inscribed (basket of Buddha's Relics 

Kanishka's Cold Coin of Buddha 

Rock Temple of Kaiiasa 

Gold Coin of Chandra Gupta and his 

Iron Pillar and Outub Minar 

Coin of Vishnu X'ardhrma ... 

Column of Victory 

Kashmir Coin of Vikramaditva 

Autog-raph of King Harsha . 

Medal of the Horse-sacrifice 

Deccan Coin of Harsha Deva- 

Gold Coin of Gangeya Deva 

Indian Coin of Mahmud 

Gold Sikandar as-Sani C^oin of Muhammad I 

Brass Token of Muhammad II. 

Atala Mosque 

Tanka of the lunperor Altamsh 

Kmperor Babar 

Kmperoi- Akbar ... 

Akbar's Gold Asirgarh Medal 

Akbar's Coin 

Coin of Jahanoir and Nur [ahan 

The Taj Mahal . 

Jumma Mas] id . 


Gold Coin of Shah Jahan 

Aurangzeb's Coin 

Sivaji's Fort at Rajgarh 

Robert Clive 

^^'arren Hastings 

Lord Cornwall is ... 

Company's Pice of 1833 

The Residency, Lucknow 







[ Id 
I I 1 








Chapters I and II. 

(1) 1908. Sir Herbert Risley : The People of India. 

(2) 1906. Georg-e A. Grierson : Languages of India and the 
• Linguistic Survey. (In Journal, Society of Arts.) 

C3) IQ03. Indian Census Report for 1901 : Part I., Chapter 
VI I. , on Languages, by Dr. G. A. Grierson. 

14) 1901. O. Schrader.- Reallexicon der Indogermanischen 
AltL-rthumskunde: Especially the article " Urheimat 
der Indogermanen." 

(5) 1890. O. Schrader and F. B. Jevons: Pre-historic Antiqui- 
ties of the Aryan Peoples. 

Chapters III and IV. 

(1) 1900. A. A. MacdoncU : History of Sanskrit Literature. 

(2) 1900. E. Washburn Hopkins : the Great Epic of India. 

(3) 1897- R- Pick : Die Sociale Gliederung im Nordostlichen 

indien zu Buddha's Zeit. (Also for Chapter V.) 

(4) 1896. E. Senart : Les Castes dans I'lnde. 

(5) 189-?. R. C. Dutt : History of the Civilization of India, 

based on Sanskrit Literature. 

Chapters III. to VIII. 

(^11 1908. The Indian Empire, Vol. 1 L, Historical, (in the 
Imperial Gazetteer of India.; 

(2) 1908. Vincent A. Smith; The Early History of India. 

(2nd ed.j 

(3) 1906. Vincant A. Smith: Catalogue of Corns m the 

Indian Museum, Calcutta. The Introductions to 
the several Sections. 

Chapter V. 

Asoka's Reign. 
(i) 1901. V. A. Smith: Asoka. (In •' Rulers of India" 
Series. ) 

(2) 1894. G. Bahler; Asoka's Edicts. (In Epigraphia India, 

Vol. II. j 

General History. 

(3) 1903. T. W. Rhys Davids: Buddhist India. (In "Story 

of the Nations" Series.) 

(4) ^898 E. l-Rapson: Indian Coins. (In Encyclopaedia of 

Indo-Arvan Research.) (Also for Chapter VI.) 

(5) 1891. Sir A. Cunningham : Coins of Ancient India. 

[ 2 ] 

Buddhism and Jainism. 

(6) 1898. A. F. Rudolf Hoernle : Jainism and Buddhism. 

(In Calcutta Review. Also in Annual Address to the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal ; in its Proceedings.) 

(7) 1898. W. C. Peppe and V. A. Smith : The Piprahva 

Stupa. (In Journal, Royal Asiatic Society.) Also 
J. F. Fleet (ibid., 1906-7.) 

(8) 1897. H. Oldenberg- : Buddha, his Life, Doctrine and 

Ordar. (English Translation of ist edition by W. 
Hoey, 1882). 

(9) 1895. H. Kern; Manual of Buddhism. (In Encyclopaedia 

of Indo- Aryan Research.) 

History of \Vriti)ig. 

(10) 1904. G. Buhler: Indian Paleography (In Indian Anti- 

quary, Vol. XXXIII, Appendix. 

(11) 1898. G. Buhler: Origin of the Indian Brahma Alphabet. 

History of Art. 

Jas. Burgess: Buddhist .\rt in India. 

A. Foucher : L'art Greco- Bouddhique du Gandhara. 

(12) 1901. 
113) 1905- 

Chapter VI. 

Northern India. 

(i) R. D. Banerji : The Sc}thian Period of Indian History. 
(In Indian Antiquary, Vol. xxxvii. ) 

(2) 1908. E.J.Rapson: Coins of the Andhras, \V. Kshatrapas, 

etc. (British Museum Catalogue. Especially the 
Historical Introduction, pp. i-CLXV.) 

(3) 1906. J. F. Fleet : The Traditional Date of Kanishka. 

(In Journal, Royal Asiatic Society, p. 979). 

(4) 1906. V. A. Smith: The Indo-Parthian Dynasties. (In 

Journal, German Oriental Society.) 

(5) 1903. V. A. Smith: The Kushana Period. (In Journal, 

Royal Asiatic Society.) 

(6) 1900. Boyer : L'epoche de Kanishka. (In Journal Asia- 


(7) 1899. D. R. Bhandarkar : The Origin of the Saka Era. 

(In Journal, Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic 

(8) 1889-1893. Sir A. Cunningham : In NumismaticChronicle. 

(9) 1886. P. Gardner : Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings 

in India. (British Museum Catalogue.) 

Southern India. 

(10) 1896. J. P". Fleet: Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts. 
(In Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I., Part II.) 

[ 3 ] 

(ii) 1895. R. G. Bhandarkar: Early History of the Dekkan. 
(In Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I., Part II.) 

Buddhist Art. 

See Chapter V. No. 12, 13. 

Chapter VII. 

Gupta Period. 

(1) ' 1905. F. Kielhorn : Chronological Supplements, in Ap- 

pendixes I and II, to Vol. VIII of the Epigraphia 

(2) 1902. V. A. Smith : Revised Chronology of the Early 

Imperial Gupta Dynasty. (In Indian Antiquary, 
Vol. XXXI.) 

(3) 1889. A. F. Rudolf Hoernle and V. A. Smith : Inscribed 

Seal of Kumara Gupta. (In Journal, Royal Asiatic 
Society of Bengal.) 

(4) 1889. V. A. Smith : Gupta Coinage. (In Journal, Royal 

Asiatic Society.) 

(5) 1888. J. F. Fleet: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas and 

their Successors. (In Corpus Inscriptionum Indi- 
carum, Vol. III.) 

(6) 1909. Some Problems of Ancient Indian History. No. IV. 

The Identity of Yasodharman and Vikramaditya. 
(In Journal, Royal Asiatic Society, p. 8g.) 

Vikramaditya Period. 

(7) 1903- ^- P- Rudolf Hoernle : Some Problems of Ancient 

Indian History. No. I. (In Journal, Royal Asiatic 

Revival of Brahmanism. 

(8) igoo. R. G. Bhandarkar : Peep into the Early History of 

India. (In Journal, Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society.) 
See also Chapter VI., Nos. 10 and 11. 

Chapter VIII. 

Northern Empire. 

(i) 1905. Girindranath Dutt ; The Brahmans and Kayasthas 
of Bengal. (In The Indian Review.) 

(2) 1904. .■\. F. Rudolf Hoernle: Some Problems of Ancient 

Indian History. No. II., the Gurjara Empire, and 
1905, No. III. the Gurjara Clans. (In Journal, 
Royal Asiatic Society.) 

(3) ^1902. D. R. Bhandarkar : Gurjaras. (In Journal, Bombay 

Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.) 

(4) 1900. M. A. Stein : Translation of Rajalarangini. 

[ 4 ] 

(5) i897- Major R. G. Raverty : Translation of the Tabaqat 

i Nasiri. (In the Bibliotheca Indica. Also for 
Chapter IX.) 

(6) 1894. Sir A. Cunningham : Coins of Mediaeval India. 

Southern Empire. 

(?) IQOS- S. Krishnasvami Aiyangar : The Making of Mj'sore. 

(8) 1900-03. J. F. Fleet : Ganga and other Inscriptions, (In 

the Epigraphia India.) 

(9) 1890. Sir Walter Elliot: Coins of Southern India. (In 

Numismata Orientalia.) 
(10) See Chapter VT., Nos. 10 and 11. 

Chapter IX. 

Northern India. 

(i) 1903. Lane Poole: Mediaeval India. (In the " Story of 
the Nations" Series.) 

(2) 1894. Lane Poole : Muhammadan Dynasties. 

(3) 1871. E.Thomas: Chroniclesof the Pathan Kings of Delhi. 

Southern India. 

(4) 1900. R. Sewell : A Forgotten Empire f Vijayanagar.) 

(5) See Chapter VI., Nos. 10 and 11. 

Chapters I-IX. 

Perhaps the most useful guide-book is C. Mabel Duff's Chro- 
nology of India, giving in chronological order a table of events 
from the birth of Buddha down to the Mughal conquest, or from 
557 B.C. to 1530 A.D., each entry being supported by copious re- 
ferences to authorities up to the date of publication, 1899. 

Numerous articles on points of detail by Messrs. Bendall, 
Bhandarkar, Biihler, Fleet, Hara Prasada Shastri, Hoernle, Hop- 
kins, Hultzsch, Jacobi, Kielhorn, Levi, Senart, Stein, and others, 
may be found in the following periodicals : 

(i) Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

(2) Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

(3) Journal of the Bombay Branch of No. 2. 

(4) Journal Asiatique (French). 

(5) Journal of the German Oriental Society. 

(6) Journal of the American Oriental Society. 

(7) Indian Antiquary. 

(8) Epigraphia India. 

(9) Vienna Oriental Journal. 

(10) Archaeological Survey Reports of Sir A. Cunningham, 

J. Burgess, and others. « 

(11) Numismatic Chronicle. 

(12) Numismata Orientalia. 


[ 5 ] 

Index to Subject-Heads in the Matriculation History 
Syllabus of the Calcutta University. 


The Physical Features of the Country. 

The Aborigines of India. Immicrrations from the North-east and 

The Aryans. The I ndo- Aryans. 

The Vedas. Relation of the Rig-- Veda to other Vedas. 

The Brahmans. The Smritis. Manu. 

The Caste System. 

Buddha and Buddhism. 

Mahavira and the Jains. 

The Kingdoms of Kosala and Magadha. The Empire of the 
Nan das. 

Invasion of Alexander the Great. 

Accounts of India given by Greek Writers. 

The Maurya Empire. Chandra Gupta. Asoka. 

The Kushana Empire. Kanishka. The Saka Era. The Gupta 
Empire. Buddhist Architecture and the Fine Arts. 

Chinese Pilgrims. Kali Das. Vikramaditya. The Vikrama Era. 

Rise of the Rajputs. 

Muhammadan Conquest of Sind and the Punjab. 

Mahmud of Ghazni. 

Hindu Civilization on the eve of the Muhammadan rule in Incia. 

The Tdrki (Pathan) Dynasties. Muhammad Ghori. Outbuddin. 

Altamsh. Raziyyat. Mughal Invasion. 

[ 6 ] 

Conquest of Gujarat; Malwa ; and the Deccan. Incursions into 
Southern India. Allauddin. 

The Tughlak Dynasty. Muhammad Tug-hlak. Firuz Tughlak. 
Timur's Invasion. 

Break-up of the Pathan Empire. 

The Muhammadan Kingdoms of Delhi, Bengal, Jatunpur. 
Gujarat, The Deccan. 

The Hindu Kingdoms of Vijayanagar, Meywar (Rajputana and' 
Udaipur) and Orissa. 

Rise of Religious Sects under Pathan Rule ; Ramananda, Kabir, 
Nanak, Chaitanya. Spread of Muhammadan ism. 

Pathan Architecture. The Urdu Language. Indian Literature 
in Pathan times. 

The Mughal Dynasty, Babar, Humayun, Sher Shah, Restoration 
of Humayun. 

Akbar, Todar Mall, Abul Fazl. 

Jahangir, Nur Jahan, Sir Thomas Roe. 

Shah Jahan, Bernier, Mughal Architecture. 

Aurangzeb, Rajput Revolt. Aurangzeb's treatment of Hindus, 
Sivaji and the Marathas. 

Break-up of the Mughal Empire. The Successors of Aurangzeb, 
Revolt of the Provinces, Invasion of the Marathas, Inva- 
sion of Nadir Shah and .A.hmad Shah Abdali, Struo-crle for 
supreme power between Muhammadans and Marathas. 

The Maratha Confederacy. Extent of Maratha Dominion. 

Contact of the Marathas with the English. 

The Europeans in India. Discovery of the Cape route to India by 
the Portuguese. The Dutch, the French, and the English 
Merchant Companies, and early Setdement. First Charter of 
the East India Company. * 

The French in India. Duplei.x. 

[ 7 3 

The English in India, Clive. English Wars and Territorial 
acquisitions in Madras, Bengal and Bombay. Plassey. The 
Dewani. Early History of Calcutta. Clive's Sj'stem of ad- 

Warren Hastings, his Financial, Revenue and Judicial Reforms, 
his Relations with Native Powers. The Regulating Act. 
Warren Hastings first Governor- General. Extent of British 
Dominion in his time. Pitt's India Bill. 

Lord Cornwallis, his administration Reforms. The Permanent 


Sir John Shore, his Non-intervention Policy. 

i.ord Wellesley, his wars with Mysore, and with the Marathas. 
The system of Subsidiary Treaties. 

Lord Minto, State of Central India, Extension of Relations of 
British Indian Government with Foreign Powers outside India. 
Renewal of the Company's Charter. 

Lord Hastings, his Wars with Nepal, and with the Marathas. 

Lord Amherst, the first Burmese War. 

Lord William Bentinck, his Social and Administration Reforms, 
Renewal of the Company's Charter. Sir Charles Metcalfe. 

Lord .\uckland, his Policy, the First Afghan War. 

Lord Ellenborough, the Sindh War. 

Lord Hardinge, the first Sikh War. 

Lord Dalhousie, the Second Sikh War, the Doctrine of Lapse, and 
the Annexation Policy. The Second Burmese War. Material 
Progress of the Country under Dalhousie. 

Lord Canning. The Indian Mutiny, Probable Causes, the Assump- 
tion of Direct Government by the Crown. The Queen's 

India Ander the Viceroys, Financial Reforms. The Orissa 
Famine, and other Great Famines. The Second, and Third 

[ 8 ] 

Afffhan Wars. The Third Burmese War. DeUmitation of 
Frontier Boundaries. 

The Marathas, their Rise; Sivaji and his Successors. Maratha 
System of War, Administration, and Revenue. Rise of the 
Peshwas. Baji Rao, his Successors. Origin of the chief exist- 
ing Maratha States. 

Mysore: an Ancient Hindu Kingdom. Haidar Ali, his Wars with 
the Marathas, the Nizam and the English. Tipu Sultan. 
Restoration of the Hindu Dynasty. 

The Sikhs, Their origin and Religion. Guru Govinda. Their 
struggle with Ahmad Shah Abdali. Ranjit Singh, his 
Conquests, the Khalsa. Ranjit Singh's Successors. 




The Physical Features of India, and some 
. Observations thereon. 

TXDIA may broadly be divided into three distinct 
parts. The first is the Himalayan region, which in- 
cludes Kashmir, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan. The second 
is the Great Plain between the Vindhya Mountains and 
the Himalayas. It contains the Punjab, Rajputana, 
Central India, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 
and Northern Bengal. Th» third is the Peninsula of 
India, otherwise known by the name of the Deccan. 
It comprises all the country lying between the Vindhya 
Mountains and Cape Comorin. 

1. The Himalayan Reg-ion.— The Himalaya Moun- 
tains may be described as a double wall running from 
east to west. The Indus, the Sutlej, and the Sangpo 
(Brahmaputra) take their rise on the Tibetan side of the 
northern wall, while the southern slopes of the first 
or southern wall hold the sources of the Ganges and 
its northern tributaries. From their north-western 
extremity the Himalayas send out into Afghanistan 
a knot of wild and rugged mountains called the Hindu 
Kush. Similarly, from the eastern extremity of the 
Himalayas the Patkai Hills take their start in a 
southerlv direction. The Chinese spent much time 
and labour in building the Great Wall of China in order 
that they might prevent their warlike neighbours from 
invading the country. But Nature has provided India 
with a mightier barrier in the Himalayas on her north- 
ern boundary. These mountains have prevented the 
Mong5han races of Asia from making incursions into 
the rich plains of the Ganges, and India has never been 



anxious about the defences of the north. But it must 
not be supposed that there is absolutely no way of 
getting to Tibet from India. For at the western ex- 
tremity of the Himalayas, there are two sets of passes, 
one set leading into Eastern Turkestan and Tibet, and 
another set leading into Afghanistan. Among the former 
may be mentioned the Mustagh, Karakoram and Ghan- 
chenmo Passes, and among the latter the Khaibar, 
Bholan and Gonial Passes, and the Kuran Valley, It 
was through the north-western passes that the early 
Aryan and Turki immigrants came into India. The 
gorge through which the Brahmaputra enters India at 
the north-eastern corner is so narrow that, though it 
admitted Tibeto-Burman and Tai immigrations, nothing 
is to be feared from the invasion of an enemy in that 

2. The Great Plain. - The Great Plain of Northern 
India is watered by three systems of rivers, (i) The 
Punjab is irrigated by the Indus and Sutlej which gather 
their water on the northern side of the southern range of 
the Himalayas, and by their tributaries — the Jhelum, 
Chenab, Ravi and Beas — which obtain their supplies 
from the southern slopes of the same mountains. 
(2) Rajputana, Central India, the United Provinces, 
and Northern Bengal are fertilised by the Ganges, 
which, with its tributaries the Jumna, the Goomti, 
the Gogra and the Gunduck, takes its rise in the 
southern sides of the Himalaya. The southern con- 
fluents of the Ganges, e.g., the Chambal and the 
Sone, emerge from the Vindhya Mountains. The name 
Hindustan is applied to the' tract of country bordered 
on the north by the Sutlej and on the south by the 
Chambal, and also includes the Trans-Gangetic provinces 
of Oudh and Rohilkhand. Its eastern portion between 
the Ganges and the Jumna is designated the Doab. The 
fertihty of the Great Plain attracted the early Aryau and 
other settlers, and it became the scene of those ancient race 



movements which have permanently influenced the 
civiHzation and pohtical destinies of the whole of India. 
How the Aryans took possession of the Great Plain, 
and amalgamated with the aboriginal races whom they 
found there is related in Chapters I and III. 

3-, The Deccan op Peninsula of India.— The term 
Deccan in its widest application embraces the whole of 
Southern India from the Vindhya Mountains to Cape 
Comorin, In a somewhat restricted sense it comprises 
the Central Provinces, Berar, the Presidencies of Madras 
and Bombay, Mysore, and several protected states, chief 
among which are those of the Nizam, Sindhia, and 
Holkar. In its narrowest application it is the name of 
the high inland tract between the Narbada and the 
Krishna. The line which separates it from the Great 
Plain is formed by the Vindhya Mountains and the 
system of hills connected with them — the Aravalli Hills, 
the Satpuras, the highlands of the Central Provinces, 
the Caimur Range, and the Rajmahal Hills. This chain 
of connected mountain ridges for centuries protected 
the Deccan from invasions in the same manner, though 
in a lesser degree, as the Himalayas checked incursions 
into the Great Plain from Central Asia. But more than 
this, for several centuries they frustrated every effort to 
bring the Deccan and Northern India under the sway 
of one and the same emperor. 

From the western and eastern extremities of the 
Vindhyas two mountain ranges, known as the West- 
ern and Eastern Ghauts respectively, run in a southerly 
direction and parallel with the sea. The margin between 
the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghauts is exceedingly 
narrow, and this tract of country having been cut off by 
Nature from the rest of the peninsula, its people are in a 
backward condition when compared with the inhabitants 
of other parts of India. On the other hand, a broad strip 
of lowland lies between the Eastern Ghauts and the 
Bay of Bengal. It is irrigated by the Mahanadi, Goda- 


veri, Krishna and Kaveri, which, taking their rise in 
the western side of the Deccan, flow across the penin- 
sula, and emerging through the openings in the Eastern 
Ghauts empty themselves into the Bay. Consequently 
the Karnatic, the Northern Circars, and Orissa have 
always been accessible to civilizing influences, and in 
them the ancient dynasties of Southern India fixed their 
capitals. The Western Ghauts are much higher than 
the Eastern Ghauts, and there are no rivers that flow 
into the Arabian Sea between Surat and Cape Comorin. 
The inner triangular plateau, shut in by the Vindhya 
Mountains and the Western and the Eastern Ghauts, rises 
from 1,000 to 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. It 
is entered on the west by several passes, the chief of 
which, the Bhor Pass, was in ancient times regarded as 
the key to the Deccan. Another important opening 
into the plateau is the Thai Ghat. The physical features 
of the Deccan, and particularly the rugged mountains of 
the Western Ghauts, made it possible for the Marathas 
to develop those methods of warfare which made them 
a terror to their neighbours, and a thorn in the side of 
the Mughal Emperors at Delhi. 

It is common to speak of India as the central pen- 
insula of Asia. But this is incorrect. For if a line be 
drawn from Cape Monze through Calcutta to Chittagong 
it will be seen that only the part of India south of that 
hne, which may roughly be taken to coincide with the 
Tropic of Cancer, is a peninsula, while the portion of 
the country north of that line belongs to the mainland 
ot Asia. Furthermore, Cape Comorin is onlv eight de- 
grees from the Equator, whereas Kashmir is thirtv-six 
degrees from it. While, therefore, the southern half of 
India lies within the Torrid Zone, its northern half falls 
withm the North Temperate Zone. We must therefore 
expect to find the Deccan differing considerably from the 
Great Plain and the Himalayan Belt in respect of its 
natura products and inhabitants, its climate and scenery 
Accordingly, in the Punjab, North Rajputana, Sindh, and 


a part of the United Provinces, the vast plains, which 
in the summer months are scorched by a burning sun, 
are in the rainy and cold seasons covered with crops of 
wheat, barley, maize, and other cereals of the temperate 
zone. In Lower Bengal, on the other hand, the vegeta- 
tion is luxuriant, and rice grows plentifully. The Deccan 
has ?i uniform temperature throughout the year, and its 
vegetable products are distinctly tropical. Its western 
side receives much rain from the south-east monsoons ; 
but the deficiency of raiafall on its eastern half is 
compensated by the water derived from the rivers that, 
passing through it. flow into the Bay of Bengal. Being 
altogether dependent upon the rains for its harvests, any 
excess or failure of rain results in a famine, of which 
there have been several. On the Malabar and Coro- 
mandal Coasts, which are within the influence of the 
brine from the sea, cocoanuts and palms abound. The 
physical features of Lower Burma are similar to those 
of Lower Bengal : but Upper Burma is hilly, less tropi- 
cal, and less fertile. In respect of climate every varia- 
tion of temperature prevails, from the eternal snows of 
the Himalayas to the great iieat of the tropical south. 
A corresponding difference is observable in the charac- 
teristics of the inhabitants. In the north we have fair 
races of people ; but as we go south the complexion 
of the natives of the country becomes darker, and thev are 
less robust. Mountains and a cold climate produce good 
fighting races, and hence the Ghurkas, the Sikhs, the 
Punjabis, tlie Baluchis, the Pathans, the Dogras, the 
Rajputs and the Marathas are the best soldiers in the 
Native Army. 

It might reasonably have been expected that India, 
with a sea coast of 5000 miles — from Cape Monze to 
Point Victoria in Tennaserim — would be a great maritime 
country. But such is not the case. It must be re- 
membered that she has but few harbours, and that, as 
will be explained in the next paragraph, she is a self- 
contained country. Moreover, in olden times she was 


SO far iVom every naval power, that she origmally had 
nothing to fear from enemies from across the seas, save 
from such minor pests as pirates who formerly landed in the 
creeks of the Malabar coast, or at the mouths of the rivers 
of the Coromandal coast. She, therefore, in bye-gone 
days, kept no navy ; and thus she was all unprepared to 
oppose the landing of European nations when they first 
anchored off her shores. Indeed, the only direction 
from which India may be invaded is through the passes 
along the North-West Frontier, and here the British 
Government has supplemented the protection afforded 
by Nature by building a chain of fortresses and outposts, 
and by furnishing them with strong garrisons of 

From what has been said it will be seen that 
India occupies a peculiar position. It may be likened 
to a fortress, protected in its northern half by mountain 
ranges with almost insuperable passes, and in its southern 
half by coasts almost destitute of natural harbours ; while 
within its own borders, with its varying climes, it pos- 
sesses an abundance of desirable natural products of 
man}' kinds. This peculiar position of India accounts 
to a great extent for most of the special features of its 
history and its civilization. For it tended to foster a 
home-staying, self-contained population ; and none of its 
races developed into either a conquering or a seafaring 
nation like the Greeks or Romans of old, or the English 
of modern times. Its history has been enacted wholly 
within its own borders, which indeed are wide enough to 
permit of great variations and changes in point of politics 
and in culture. But though well protected from the 
outside world, India never has been entirely excluded 
from contact with it. At an early date, some maritime 
intercourse from its scanty harbours did take place with 
the Persian Gulf in the west and with the Chinese coast 
in the east. But though India, contented within its own 
borders, has never sent out hordes to seek new abodes, 
or armies to conquer neighbouring countries, it has been 


repeatedly the victim of immigrations and invasions of 
peoples from beyond its borders. These outsiders modi- 
fied its political history and added elements to its culture, 
but they were never able to deprive either of its pe- 
culiarly Indian character. 

Only once did the self-contained character of India 
suffer a relaxation. This was when Buddhism was 
being spread beyond its borders ; and this conspicuous ex- 
ception shows how deeply the soul of the people must 
have been stirred by that great religious movement. 


TJie Pre=historic Period : The Aborigines. 

INDIA is not so much a country, as a continent. 
Hence also it exhibits continental 
characteristics. One of these is that India & Europe, 
its inhabitants are of many races, many languages, 
and many religions. In a country this might have 
been different. Take, for example, France or Germany. 
Their people are of one race, one language, and one 
religion. But then they are merely countries. The}" 
are much smaller than India, which indeed is about 
seven times as large as either France or Germany. 
In fact, India is rather larger than the whole continent 
of Europe, with Russia excluded. If now we compare 
it with Europe, the difference disappears ; for Europe, 
like India, has many races, languages, and religions. The 
reason of this manifoldness is the same in both cases ; 
it is the result of the wholesale migrations that often 
took place in ancient times. 

In the earliest ages of which we have any know- 
ledge, India was inhabited by a certain 
race of people who were distinguished Aborfffines 
by very dark skins and flat noses. We 
call them Aborigines, that is the people of the begin- 
ning, because we do not know whence and when they 
came into the countr}*. There are certain linguistic 
reasons which seem to show that at some very remote 
time that race, which is now known as the Mon-Khmer, 
was spread not only over the whole of India, but ex- 
tended also far eastwards into Burma and Siam. At 
the p^resent day the race survives only in scattered 
remnants which are called Mundas, or, less appropriately. 


Kolarians, and which include most of the uncivihzed 
tribes that are still found inhabiting widely separate tracts 
of India. They are the Bhils, Kols, Santhals, Juangs, 
and other tribes of Central India, the Khasis of Assam, 
the natives of the Andaman and the Nicobar Islands, 
and the Veddas of Ceylon. They still retain most of 
the characteristic features of their remote forelathers. 
These were a savage people, living in small bands in the 
dense jungles and forests which then covered most parts 
of India. Their occupation was to hunt wild animals, 
or to raid upon one another, which they did with 
weapons made of stone. They lived on the wild pro- 
duce of the jungle, on roots, and fruits, and raw flesh, 
and they knew neither the breeding of cattle, nor the 
tilling of land ; nor had they any settled laws or forms 
of government. They made pOts of clay, and baked 
them in fire. They buried their dead, and over their 
graves they set up upright slabs of rock or circles of 
stones. It is from these, and the things dug up in them, 
that we are able to form some idea of the life and the 
customs of the wild Aborigines. 

But there were other aboriginal inhabitants of 
India who were not so wild. These 
Abor^ines were the Dravidians, such as the Ta- 

mils, Kanarese, Gonds, and others. 
There are, again, certain linguistic reasons which seem 
to indicate that this race migrated into India from the 
south at a very remote time, when possibly there 
still existed some land connection with Australia. It 
would appear that they gradually conquered the Mun- 
das whom they found in occupation of the country. 
With these Mundas they intermarried and amalgamated ;. 
but they preserved their own Dravidian form of speech. 
^ In fact, what happened in their case was probably very 
\y similar to what occurred subsequently, as we shall see 
\ in the following chapters, in the case of the Aryan im- 
migrants from the north-west. At the present day, 
the Dravidians form the prevailing population of 


^mtheiD-ljidia, but in tlie pre- historic age they must have_ 
been spread over some^p arts of No illienLlndiajis w_ell. 
They inhabited everywhere the plains and valleys of 
the large rivers, which they had cleared of forest, and 
made fit for the cultivation of land and for the breeding 
of cattle. They lived in settled communities, under 
fixed faws and government. They possessed fortified 
strongholds as a protection against the raids ot the sur- 
rounding wild tribes. They wore garments, used im- 
plements and weapons of copper, and put on ornaments 
of gold. Their religion included a phallic cult as well 
as the worship of snakes and trees, which things were ^ . 
at first repugnant to the Aryan invaders, though later^\ / 
on, when the latter amalgamated with the earlier m-P^^ 
habitants, they were admitted under the worship of 
Siva. It is probable that they carried on a brisk mari- 
time trade to the Persian Gulf from the western shores 
of India, and that in connection with it, perhaps in the 
seventh century B.C., they invented the rudiments of 
the Indian system of writing. Most ot these things we 
know from incidental statements in the Vedic hymns, 
which show that certain portions of the aboriginal in- 
habitants possessed a degree of civilization equal to, if 
not higher than, that of the Aryan tribes wh ich invaded 
their country and conquered them. 

Besides the Dravidian, two other immigrations de- 
serve some notice. These came into 
India from the north-east, but as they fmm?grJuon° 
never penetrated into the country far- 
ther t han the wild vaUevs of the Himalaya__and_its 
offshoots whjc h form the n^rth^agtenTco rner ot ^_"dia, 
th eynever Exerted any In fluence on the _couiseIorTts 
history, nor helped to mould its civilizationTand a very 
brief notice, therefore, will suffice. The original home 
of these noithz£a^ieDi-J4niuigrants_is^upposed to have 
been t,he country round the head-waters of the Yangtse- 
Kiang in China, whence they came down into Eastern 
India by the valley of the Brahmaputra. They did so 


in two successive waves. The first to come were the 
so-called Tibeto-Burman tribes which settled in the 
valley of Assam and in the hills of the eastern frontier 
down to Chittagong. They have their name from the 
fact that their main stream spread and settled outside 
India in Burma and Tibet. Their entrance into India 
lies far back, and its date is not exactly knowii. The 
second immigration, which is that of the Tai tribes, 
took place in comparatively modern times. These 
tribes, under the name of the Shans, settled in Eastern 
Burma and Siam in the sixth century A.D., but sub- 
sequently a small portion of them moved into Assam 
about 1228 A.D. There, after several hundred years of 
conflict with the Chutiyas and Kacharis, they finally 
succeeded, 1540 a.d., in establishing their rule. Their 
kingdom, known as that of the Ahoms, reached the 
height of its power towards the end of the seventeenth 
century ; but afterwards it fell a prey to internal troubles, 
which, early in 1825 a.d., led to Its being annexed to 
the British dominions. 




The Pre=Vedic Period : The Aryans in their Original 


Before 2000 B.C. 


ESPECTING the original home of the Ar^ajas-two 
\i main theories have been held. 
The older of them places that home in E{]p(/pi^nc 
Weste,mjjirkestan ; the other, which 
has the support of a mass of anthropological and linguis- 
tic evidence, refers it to^South£m_Russia, or some other 
part of Europe. According to this theory, there lived, 
in pre-historic periods, a hardy race of nomads, probably 
in the extensive steppes of Southern Russia in Europe, 
along the banks of the river Volga. They were mainly 
a fair-skinned people, with well-shaped noses and hand- 
some faces. They wandered from one pasturage to 
another with their flocks of cattle, goats and sheep, trans- 
porting their families and goods in light waggons drawn 
by horses. Rivers were crossed by them in boats cut 
out from the trunks of trees which grew along the banks. 
The milk and the flesh of their herds served as food, and 
of the skins the}' made for themselves simple garments, 
as well as of the hair or wool which they spun and wove 
in a primitive fashion. They also kept bees for the sake 
of the honey, from w^hich they prepared an intoxicating 
drink called mead. They used implements of stone, and 
weapons of copper with which they defended themselves 
against the depredations of wolves and bears and other 
wild animals. While temporarily settled on a pasturage, 
they dwelt in huts made of wood and loam, or in cavities 
dug in the ground. At such times they raised small crops 
of barle5'and millet which they roasted and crushed to bake 
into cakes, and they also trafficked by barter with neigh- 


bouring races for such things as their own steppes did not 
produce. The sky, the sun, the moon, the dawn, fire, 
wind, and thunder seemed to them gods ; and accord- 
ingly they feared and sought to propitiate them. They 
had no priests, but cunning men among them claimed 
by sorcery to control the gods and to heal diseases. 
Their men got for themselves wives by capture or pur- 
chase. The husband had an absolute right of sale or 
death over his wife and children ; and for the widow of 
a chief it was considered proper to die at the grave 
of her husband. They lived together, two or three 
generations in a joint-family. Several such families made 
up a clan, and several clans formed a tribe. From among 
the clan-lords, one was chosen chief or king of the tribe, 
to administer its common business, and above all to act 
as supreme commander in war. 

In course of time the race multiplied to such an 

extent that the pasturage of the common 

Dispepsion of area did not suffice for the needs of all the 

pelns'!^^'^"''^' t"^^s- This may have been about four 
thousand years ago. So those tribes who 
lived on the borders of the area, made up their minds to 
seek new homes in other parts of the world. Those 
living on the western border went south-west into 
Europe and settled in England, France, Germany, Italy, 
Greece and elsewhere. But one large tribe which 
frequented the pasturages on the south-eastern border 
at the head of the Caspian Sea, and whose members 
called themselves Aryans, crossed the Ural river into 
Asia, and wandered south-east into the steppes of 
Western Turkestan between the Caspian Sea and the 
river Yaxartes or Sir Darya. Here the Aryans were 
settled for some considerable time. 

The Vedic Period : The Aryans in the Punjab. 

About i8oc — looo B.C. 

AFTER a time, there arose among the Aryans, in 
their new home on the northern 
side of the Hindu Kush, a religious re- fmmigratKm! 
former, known by the name of Zoroaster. 
A large portion of them, known as the Iranians, accepted 
the reform. This gradually caused such serious discord 
with the rest of the Aryans that the Iranians determi- 
ned to separate. They crossed the mountain barrier, and 
wandered westward and settled in Iran, or Persia. Some 
time afterwards, another portion of the Aryans, who had 
not accepted Zoroaster's reform, also crossed the moun- 
tains. But these migrateds outhward into I ndia, and, for 
that reason^jvr e knownas thTIndo- Aryan s.^ The separa- 
tion of the Aryans, and their respective settlements, 
occurred at some time between the i8th and i6th centu- 
ries B. c. This we know from certain recently discovered 
cuneiform inscriptions In India, the Indo- Aryans occu- 
pied the country on both sides of the Indus and as far as 
the Jumna, that is, Eastern Afghanistan and the Punjab. 
Within this new home, they remained settled for several 
centuries, probably down to about looo B. c. But it 
must not be supposed that the settlement was effected 
in the space of a few years or without any trouble. 
On the contrary, fierce fights took place with the 
aboriginal race that already occupied the country. 

It has been explained, in Chapter I, that the abori- 
ginal Dravidians were a comparatively „. 
civilized people. In this respect they S?Dravidians. 
were hardly interior to the mvading 
Aryans ; but the latter were a more hardy race, stronger 


both physically and mentally. So it is no wonder that the 
Dravidian civilization was overwhelmed by that of the 
Aryans. The most striking evidences of this fact are that 
. the Aryan language entirely ousted the Dravidian, and 
that the Dravidian people, though numerically far superior, 
were entirely subjected to the Aryan domination, and 
incorporated into the Aryan community, of which' hence- 
forth they formed the lowest or Sudra class. At the same 
time, the incorporation of such a numerous class could not 
but leave its mark on the physical constitution and the 
social organization of the Aryans. At the first contact 
with the aboriginal population, the distinction of colour 
was a marked feature. In the Vedas the Aborigines 
are described as krishna or dark, or as being of the 
dasa-variia, that is, the enemies' colour, in contrast to 
the arya-var7ia, or friends' (i.e., fellow-clansmen's) colour, 
which was fair. But by the end of the Vedic period, 
the distinction of colour had practically disappeared. 
For though the word for colour ( varna) survived as a 
general term for caste, it was no longer used as a mark 
for distinguishing one caste from another. 

Caste, in the proper sense, as we shall see in 

Chapter IV, arose in the next period ; 

Origin of Classes, j^^^ ^^^ necessities and vicissitudes of 

the Aryan migration led to the rise of "classes," which 
did not exist in the original European home. There, 
apart from differences in wealth, all the individual 
nomads were equals ; the only approach to a distinct 
class was made by the magician or sorcerer, who got his 
living not by cattle-breeding but by ministering to the 
religious instincts of his clansmen. But when the Aryan 
people, in the course of their wanderings, passed from 
the steppes into a countr)" of mountains and forests, 
they had to exchange a nomadic life for that of the 
v aisya . or settler, whose occupation was to clear the 
forest and till the ground. Moreover, though to ward 
off raids at first every man had to be a warrior, yet when 
it came to regular fierce warfare with the Aborigines 


of Other countries, the necessity arose for a class of 
men who devoted themselves to the practice of arms. 
Being the fighters for, and the protectors of, the people, 
under the leadership of the raja, or chief, they came to 
occupy a privileged position as being the rajanya, or the 
chief men, i.e., the nobles. A long course^Fsuecessiul 
wandering anc l warfare naturally led the Aiyan__to a 
higher conception of his gods, to whose favour he felt 
that he owed it. Out of mysterious powers to be feared, 
the gods grew to be, for him, personal and beneficent 
beings, worthy of receiving his brahma n, that is, prayer 
and praise. Simultaneously the^Wizards of old grew up 
into a class of cultured Brahmans, whose business it was 
to compose hymns in praise of the gods and to sacrifice 
to them. Thus by the time the Aryans had effected 
their sgttlemenL-in — oorth-western Indi a about_j_ooo 
B.C., they were divided into three classes, the 
Rajanya, Brahinana , and Vaisy a, to which the subject 
ABorigines were added as a~fourth class of Sudras. 
These classes, however, had not yet become castes ; for 
the Brahmans, though very influential, were not yet the 
dominant class, nor was it impossible to pass from one 
class into another. 

The high-water mark of the culture reached by 
the Indo- Aryans in the person of their xj, d- a 
Brahmans, is exhibited in the Rigveda. ^^ ^ 

This is a collection of upwards of a thousand skilfully 
composed hymns, mostly, though not exclusively, of a 
religious import. For that early age, their literary 
excellence is asfonishing ; few compositions comparable 
to theTmcan be found among any other people. The 
collection must have been finished as early as 1000 
B.C., and has since been handed down with scrupulous 
care and accuracy. Most of the hymns of the collec- 
tion appear to have 'been composed in the extreme 
eastern portion of the area occupied by the Aryans, 
that is^ not far from the right bank of the Jumna, in the 
district of Thanesar, south of Ambala, between the 


two small rivers, the Sarsati and the Chitang. Hence 
this district was called the BraJimavarta or the home 
of the Brahman, i.e., of the Vedic Hymns of prayer 
and praise. It was also named Kiinikshetra, that is, 
the land of the Kurus, who were one of the most 
distinguished tribes among the Aryans of India. 

From the Rigveda, which is a contemporary work, we 
are able to gather a trustworthy account 
fion^° Civiliza- ^f ^y^^ gj-^^-g ^^ civilization of the Aryans 
between three and four thousand years 
ago. The following are some of the main features. Their 
^cial divi sion into four classes has been already men- 
tioned. As to~ tlieir political organizati on, it remained 
practically unchanged, and consisted oflribes, clans, and 
joint-families. Though the}'' were conscious of their 
unity in race, language and religion, there was no cohesion 
between the tribes, though for temporary purposes 
they readily formed confederations. Just as the govern- 
ment of the joint-famil y was patriarchal, so that of the 
tribejmL^ionaichical. i he king being once elected by 
the clansTThe office generally became hereditary. His 
power, however, was limited b}' the will of the people 
expressed in the Samili or tribal assembly. The settle- 
ments were villages, consisting of houses made of wood, 
with the domestic fire in the middle. There were no 
towns, though there were fortified enclosures on hill-tops, 
made of earth and stones, and stockaded. Ordinarily, 
however, these were not inhabited, but used only as 
places of refuge during raids or floods. In manners and 
customs we notice an advance in refinement. As to 
marriage, contract takes the place of capture or purchase ; 
the wife occupies a position of greater honour in the 
household ; when the husband dies, she is no longer expect- 
ed to cremate herself with him. The commonest crime 
appears to have been cattle-liftmg ; and the commonest 
vice, gambling, and in connection therewith ruinous 
debts, and indulgence in sofna and sjira, two kinds of 
spirituous liquor. The chief articles of food were milk, 


ghee, and grain of various kinds ; flesh, especially of 
bulls which had been sacrificed, was also eaten, but only 
on ceremonial occasions. The chief occupations were 
cattle-breeding and agriculture, and at certain times, ot 
course, warfare. The first of these was their principal 
source of wealth ; accordingly the cow enjoyed an almost 
sacred veneration. As to industries, such as those of the 
carpenter, smith, potter, and tanner, they were only just 
beginning to arise ; for, as a rule, every household sup- 
plied its own needs, especially by weaving clothes, and 
making utensils of clay, wood or metal. There existed 
much trade in the form of barter. In this the cow 
formed the measure of value ; though payment was often 
made in gold ornaments and jewelry. Silver was not 
known, but copper and perhaps iron were. Of these latter 
metals the implements of agriculture were made as well 
as the weapons of war — ploughs, spears and axes. But 
the principal weapon was the bow and arrow. In war- 
time the leading warriors went to battle in chariots, 
protected by coats of mail and helmets, but never on 
horseback. In times of peace the chariot was used for 
racing. This was a favourite amusement, as well as 
dancing in the open air, and music performed on the 
drum, the flute, and the lute. The reli gious belie fs, were 
undergoing a change. Some of the earlier gods were 
fading away, and others were coming into prominence. 
As a natural consequence of their life of migration and 
warfare, Indra, the god of battles, is now the favourite 
and national god. Other chief gods are Varuna, the god 
of law and order, the Maruts or storm-gods, and espe- 
cially Agni (fire) and Soma (a certain plant), the gods of 
the great Fire and So7na sacrifices. Vishnu and Siva are 
hardly yet known ; nor do anv images or temples seem 
to have" existed. The gods had each a distinctive attri- 
bute ; but they had several attributes also in common. 
When the hymns were composed, these geyieral attri- 
butes we5e uppermost in the mind of the poet, and so 
people conceived the idea that the many gods they 


adored were but the various aspects of One Divine Beings 
who was present in ever}^ part of the universe. Here 
we see the first beginnings of that philosophic thought 
which was so greatly developed in the next period, and 
which has ever distinguished the Aryans of India. 


The Brahmanic Period : The United lndo=Aryans 
in Northern India. 

About looo — 550 B.C. 

IN the preceding chapter we have seen the Aryans 
fully establisheduiLJil£--Eii«jah_jlawiilo_ab-Qi^ 
B.C. It was about this time that an 
event occurred which not only led to Remarks^^'^^ 
a further extension of the Aryan occupa- 
tion of India, but also produced those-gxeatjchanges in 
the physicaLap^jearance and the social organizatioQ of 
the Aryans which transformed them^Tnto the Indo- 
Aryans, and, apart from their language, render them so 
thoroughly distinct from their kinsfolk dwelhng in 

This event, as the linguistic and ethnic conditions 
of India seem to indicate, was a second 
irruption of Aryans into India. Of the Second Aryan 
Aryan stock which remained behind in Immigration, 
the mountainous regions of Western 
Turkestan just north of the Hindu Kush, another portion 
appears gradually to have migrated directly south into 
the Punjab, through the passes of Chitral and Swat. 
In the course of this migration it absorbed most of the 
aboriginal population of those parts, and in doing so adopt- 
ed some of its peculiar practices. Among these may be 
specially n ^ientioned polyandry and witchcraft, as testified 
by the MahabJiarata and the AiJiarva~Veda. In the 
plains of the Punjab, the new-comers came into contact 
with the earlier settlers ; and a sharp struggle for the 
possession of the country ensued between them. The 
former worked themselves into the midst of the latter like 
a wedge, forcing them to spread out further in all direc- 


tions, especially, at first, towards the east, along the 
valleys of the Jumna and the Ganges, and later also 
across the Vindhya Range into the valley of the Nar- 
bada. The ultimate result, however, of the conflict was 
that the two contending parties, together with their 
allies among the aboriginal races, were welded into one 
people, with new physical characteristics as well as a 
new and unique civilization, which is known as Brah- 
nianic. All this had come to pass by about 500 B.C. 
In the period of conflict one of the most important 
of the contending tribes was that of the 
Conflict of the Bharatas,to which the Kurus,or Kauravas, 
earlier and belonged. From this circumstance the 

\^^i<^JfJt^^ great epic, known as the Mahabharata, 
immigrants. &^^^ .^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Descen- 
dants of Bharata, takes its name ; hence, also, India as 
the home of the united parties, is known as Bharata- 
varsha or the land of the Bharatas. A reminiscence 
of the conflict is preserved in the Rigyeda. Some of 
its hymns speak of a great battle— in which the Bharatas 
took a prominent part— as having occurred on the banks 
of the Ravi, between King Suda's and a confederacy of 
ten kings. In the Mahabharata, another great battle 
is described as having lasted eighteen days near the banks 
of the Jumna, and as having been fought between 
Yudhishthira, king of the Pandavas, and one hundred 
Kaurava princes. The former with their polyandric 
customs represent the new-comers, while the Kauravas 
are the earlier settlers ; and it may be that the initial 
stage of their conflict is described in the Rigveda, while 
the Mahabharata has preserved a tradition of its final 
stage, which resulted in the formation of the united 
Indo-Aryan people. In any case, the fact that both 
contending parties are represented as having been 
Bharatas, shows that the conflict was one between two 
branches of the same Aryan stock. The story of the 
conflict itself is very ancient, but in the Mahabharata, 
which was composed in the subsequent period fsoo B.C. — 



500 A.D.), history is treated poetically. Two points, 
however, we can clearly discern from it : the growth 
of a common national feeling, and the rise of large 
monarchical states. 

We find mention of aboriginal tribes fighting side 
by sjde with the Aryans as friends and 
brothers. TheoldVedic terms of ^m/zwrt peo ^6^°"^^^^^^ 
or dark and dasa-varna or enemy- 
colour, which the fair-skinned Aryans contemptuously 
applied to the aboriginal races, are disappearing. The 
Aryans and Aborigines are merging into each other, and 
becoming the Indo-Aryan people — one in national feel- 
ing as well as in outward appearance. 

Side by side with this evolution, we observe a 
growth in political organization. The 
small tribal communities of the Vedic ftaSs'^^^" ^^ 
period are now crystallizing into larger 
territorial states, which give place, as we shall see in the 
next period, to far-reaching empires. These states possess 
regular capital cities, and are ruled by Maharajas or 
Great Kings, instead of, as hitherto, by mere Rajas or 
Chiefs. Thus we find a confederate kingdom of Panchala 
or the five cities, in the middle of Northern India, in 
what are now the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. 
Some of its capital cities were Kanyakubja (or Kanauj), 
Kausambi and Mathura, the Chief of the last of which 
was Krishna, who afterwards, for some reason no longer 
ascertainable, came to be deified as an incarnation of 
Vishnu. To the east, Panchala was bordered by the 
kingdom of Kosala, the modern Oudh, with its capital 
at Ayodhya, and, further on, the republic of Vaisali, 
forming a curious exception to the general monarchical 
organization. In Kosala once reigned the famous king 
Dasaratha, and his still more famous son Rama, who also 
afterwards came to be deified as another incarnation of 
Visbiiu. His victorious march through Southern India 
to the conquest of Ceylon, poetically described, forms 
the other great Indian epic, called the Ramayana. 


Still further to the east two more kingdoms arose ; 
those of Videha and Magadha, the modern North and 
South Bihar. The former is famous through its great 
king Janaka, the father of Sita, who was the queen of 
Rama and the heroine of the Ramayana. With Maga- 
dha was joined the kingdom of Chedi, or the country 
round Jabalpur and Bilaspur, under the great king 
Jarasandha, who is a prominent figure in the great 
conflict of the two Aryan branches. Further south- 
west came the kingdoms of Nishadha and Vidarbha, on 
the two sides of the Narbada in Central India, roughly 
corresponding to Southern Malwa and Berar. They are 
the scene of the beautiful Nalopakhyana, the epic tale 
which narrates the fortunes of Nala, king of Nishadha, and 
his consort Damayanti, the daughter of the king of Vidar- 
bha. Numerous legendary stories of this kind have sur- 
vived in the Mahabharata and Ramayana, but of the real 
history of those kingdoms we know practically no more 
than their names, and the fact that they were formed, 
partly by conquest, but probably more so by peaceful 
colonization in which the forceful Aryans prevailed. 
Everywhere the latter constituted the ruling class, and 
their language and civilization superseded everything 
that existed before. 

The form of government in these states was auto- 
cratic. The king's power was not limited 
Political and \yy ^^vy assembly either of the whole 
Economic Con- ^ ,-' c ^\. ^■ i rr i 

dition. people or of the ruhng class. He kept a 

council of ministers and a staff of officers, 
but they held office at his pleasure. His rule vras bene- 
volent or tyrannous, according as his character was good 
or bad, strong or weak, observant of law and custom or 
the reverse. There was no lack of warfare, but it gener- 
ally took place on the borders ; it was the business of 
the king, and of the ruling military caste and their mercen- 
aries. The ordinary population was considered neutral 
by both sides, and, on the whole, was allowed to live in 
the undisturbed pursuit of agriculture, trade, and industry. 


The whole population was practically divided into two 
classes. One was the ruling class, consisting of the 
martial Kshatriya and the learned Brahmana castes. 
Both were exempted from the payment of taxes, and 
ordinarily the king and the government of the country 
belonged to the former. The other, which was the subor- 
dinate class, was constituted of what were collectively 
called the Vaisya and Sudra caste, that is of the numer- 
ous castes into which the peasants, merchants, craftsmen 
and labourers of every kind were divided. They had 
to pay taxes for the cost of wars, and for the upkeep 
of the king's court and the government, but, on the 
other hand, they were exempted from military service, 
and were allowed the peaceful pursuit of their daily 
business, and, in many cases, the accumulation of much 

It was especially in the central part of Northern 
India that the conditions above described 
prevailed ; that is in that part which Jf^Cas^?^"^ 
embraces most of the present United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh. This is the Madhya-desa 
or Mid-land, which was celebrated as the centre and 
nursery of Brahmanism. It was undoubtedly that part 
of India which was most thoroughly aryanized ; where 
the Brahmanic civilization developed ; and whence it 
gradually spread over the whole of India. The most 
striking feature pf this^rahniame-Givilizalionjsjta^ystem 
of_caste. The history of its origin has been always, 
even in ancient times, a matter of much speculation. 
In the previous chapter we have seen how the vicissitudes 
of the Aryan- immigration into India tended to^iyide 
theneople intolo^^Iasies^ Among these a very influ- 
entiaTpositionlvas naturally held by the Brahmans, that 
is, by those who possessed the brahman or religious 
lore, and performed the sacrifices, on which, for the 
Kshatrjya or martial class, success in war, and for the 
ordinary population, prosperity in agriculture, pasture, 
and industry was.believed to depend. With the increasing 


complexity of the political and economic conditions, 
this feeling of dependence on the Brahmans naturally 
Jjecame jncreasingly strong. At the same time, as with 
the expansion of the Aryan occupation of India the 
absorption of aboriginal people into the Aryan com- 
munity grew larger, the,desir e of the ruHng c lass, that is, 
of the Brahmans andiCshatriyas, grew stronger to pre- 
serve the purrty^D^3!^?£ISjyan descent through the 
preventiorroiTnTefmarriage^and sociaj_contact ; and this 
policy, of necessity, tended to make each class a heredi- 
tary institution. Thus the combined action of the 
feeling of dependence and the principle of heredity (jaii), 
resulted eventually in the establishment of that system 
of caste, in which the Brahmans ar e supreme, and all 
classes are divided from one another by the insuperable 
barrier of birth and the prohibition of intermarrying and 
eating together. It is probable that it was the Brah- 
man class who first succeeded in forming themselves into 
an exclusive caste : but the example of such an influen- 
tial class naturally proved infectious, and thus their policy 
filtered downwards through all classes, till finally it 
embraced the whole Indo-Aryan community, including 
the aboriginal elements incorporated in it. It is not fair 
to say that the pride and self-interest of the Brahmans 
caused them to build up the caste system. The Brah- 
mans are no more responsible for it than any of the 
other classes, except in so far as they may have origin- 
ally set the example. Being the only class with literar>' 
culture, they systematized the process which was going 
on all around them, and recorded it in their books of 
religion and law. As a matter of fact, their systema- 
tized theory of four castes does not agree with the 
reality. Though the divisions of the ruling class, the 
Brahmans and the Kshatriyas, especially the former, are 
real castes, the two divisions of the ordinary population 
into Vaisyas and Sudras are only theoretic abstractions. 
As to that population the truth is that it consists of a 
very large number of real castes, which are based on 


grounds of race and occupation, and enjoy varying 
degrees of social rank. 

Simultaneously with caste, there grew up the other 
institution of asrania or the methodical 
division of one's life. It was to consist J? Asrama!^^^'^ 
of four stages : ( i ) study {brahmacharya) 
in one's youth, (2) founding a household and exercising 
a profession (grihastha) in manhood, and (3) meditation 
either as a settled recluse {vanaprastha), or (4) as a 
houseless wanderer {safnnyasin) in old age. This institu- 
tion had a somewhat similar history to that of caste. 
Started by the Brahmans, it was more or less copied by 
the other castes : but it never obtained the same ab- 
solute hold, as caste did, on the imagination and practice 
of the people. 

It was a natural consequence of the priestly func- 
tion of the Brahman class that literary Literature 
culture first grew up among them. It 
was their duty to preserve the ancient hymns without 
which no sacrifices could be offered. To this end they 
made a Samhita or collection of all the Rich or Vedic 
verses then known to exist, and this collection is known 
as the Rigveda. Further, as the verses were used in 
different sacrifices for which different rituals were want- 
ed, they sorted the hymns so as to form three different 
Satnhitas or collections. Thus arose the collection of 
Yajus or sacrificial formulas called Yajurveda, and 
the collection of Saman or sacrificial chants called 
Saniaveda. Later on, there was added a fourth collec- 
tion of Atharva7i or incantations, called Atharvaveda. 
Moreover, since the ancient Vedic hymns were by 
this time becoming unintelligible, the Brahmans were 
obliged to spend much labour and ingenuity in explain- 
ing them. Thus there grew up a number of theological 
works, under the name of Brahmana. Again, the 
constant occupation of the Brahmans with religious 
matters, naturally disposed them to pursue speculations 
regarding the nature of God and the World, and the 



relation of these to each other. This study gave rise to 
the theosophical and philosophical treatises, known as 
the Arayiyaka and Upanishad. 

The growth of the Brahmanic literature was accom- 
: . panied by a growth of Brahmanic religion 
fffon^^^^ ^^^^" ^"^^ religious practices. The crude poly- 
theism of the Vedic period gradually 
assumed a monotheistic aspect. The chief g-ds of that 
period, Indra and Varuna, sank into the lower position 
of the subordinate gods of the sky and the sea ; and 
Brahma rose into prominence as the Supreme God who is 
the Prajapati or Lord of the Creation. Later on, there 
developed a great division of the people into Vaishnavas 
and Saivas, according as either Vishnu or Siva, both origin- 
ally Vedic deities, were adopted as the Supreme God. But 
practically this division only represents two different 
views of the same religion— rOne more tender and refined, 
the other more coarse and passionate ; and this fact is 
typified in the so-called Indian Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu 
and Siva, that is, the Supreme God in his three manifesta- 
tions of Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer. The Saiva 
form of the Brahmanic religion, however, more distinctly 
preserves traces of the incorporation of aboriginal beliefs 
in the worship of the Linga and the reverence paid to 
the snake. As to the exercise of this religion, whether 
Vaishnava or Saiva, it consisted in the mere mechanical 
performance of elalDorate sacrifices, or of Voga, that is, 
asceticism, of various grades of severity. In either 
case, the principal object of the worshipper or the 
ascetic was to secure from his God some worldly ad- 

By the side, however, of this prevailing ritual or 
• pra.ctics.l'view of religion (karma-kha?ida) 
Panthe^sm^ there always existed among the more 
spiritual members of the Indo-Aryan 
community a speculative view of it (/na?ia-khanda). 
For tl]em the aim was, not the attainment of earthly 
happiness, but the release from mundane existence by 


the absorption of the individual soul into the Alma?i or 
World-soul, and this absorption was to be attained by 
means of jnana, or correct knowledge, of the nature 
of things. This, and not sacrifice, they maintained, was 
the Vedanta, that is, the real end oraim of the Veda. 
This was the view of the few, the pious and thoughful, 
who, abandoning the performance of sacrifices, often 
retired from the world to live as recluses in the forest. 
They held that the visible world was nothing but an 
illusion {maya) of the ignorant, that in reality there 
existed but One (atman) who was All in All ; and that 
the attainment of this conviction {jnana) led to the true 
deliverance imoksha). Accordingly they advised a life 
of contemplation ; for a life of action [karma], as it tended 
to keep a man in a state of ignorance, could not result m 
his deliverance from misery, but only in a continuous 
series of re-births, more or less full of misery according as 
his; good or bad actions had preponderated This is the 
lamous Brahmanic doctrine of transmigration {samsara) 
and its cause (karma), which gradually became so firmly 
established in the whole Indo-Aryan community that, 
as we shall see in the next chapter, it was accepted by 
Buddha without question, and included by him in the 
tundamental tenets of his religion. 

The Early Buddhist Period: 

The Greek Invasion, the First (or Maurya) Empire, and 
the Rise of Buddhism. 

About 5§o — i%o B.C. 

THE preceding chapter has shown us that, during the 
Brahmanic period, the Indo-Aryan occupation of 

India had extended to the borders of 
Remarks!^^^ Beji^al and the valley of the Narbada. 

In tire period we are now considering 
it spread still further to the east over Bengal, and to the 
south over the whole of the Deccan and as far as Ceylon. 
It was, however, in the main, not an occupation by 
armed conquest, but a peaceful subjection of the whole 
of India to the morally and intellectually more powerful 
Indo-Aryan civilization. The only parts which formed 
an exception were the wilder regions of Central India. 
Here the aboriginal inhabitants remained in their 
ancient savage condition. Also in the kingdoms of the 
east coast and the south, such as those of the Andhras, 
Cholas, Keralas, and Pandyas, which correspond to a 
part of Haidarabad and to Madras, Mysore and 
Travancore, though the Brahmanic laws and customs 
prevailed, the government remained in the hands of 
the Dravidians, and their languages (Telugu, Tamil, 
and others) maintained their ground. 

The spread of the Brahmanic civilization was much 

assisted by the fact that gradually nearly 

'"f M^^"^^°"^ "^^ whole of India came under one 

political rule. We have seen how, in 

the preceding period, a large number of states ?rose 

of varying sizes. Gradually one state among them be- 

Ch. v.] the early BUDDHIST PERIOD. 23 

came the most powerful and brought under its subjection 
the weaker states on its borders. The process, once 
begun, went on in ever widening circles, till at last a 
great empire was formed which embraced nearly the 
whole of India. It extended from beyond the Indus 
to the mouth of the Ganges, and from the Himalayas 
down to modern Mysore, where it adjoined the 
Dravidian kingdoms of the Cholas, Keralas and Pandyas. 
This was the First Indian Empire, and the nucleus from 
which it grew up was the kingdom of Magadha or South 
Bihar. At the beginning of this period, that kingdom 
was ruled by a Kshatriya dynasty, called Saisunaga, the 
fifth king of which was Bimbisara, a contemporary of 
Buddha of whom some account will be given presently. 
He ascended the throne about 543 B.C., and his capital 
was Rajagriha. He was murdered by his son Ajatasatru, 
who succeeded him about 491 B.C. This king was h 
strong and aggressive ruler, and it was he who made a 
beginning of the empire by conquering the two neigh- 
bouring -stales, the great kingdom of Kosala and the re- 
public of Vaisali. To enable him to do so, he built the 
strong fort of Pataliputra, near the site of the present 
Patna. His grandson Udayin, about 459 B.C., raised a city 
round it, and made it the royal residence. Thenceforth it 
remained for many centuries the capital of the empire. 
With Udayin's successors (about 426-371 B.C.) the 
Kshatriya dynasty appears to have come to an end. The 
history of its extinction is very obscure ; but one thing 
is certain, that the Nanda dynasty (about 371-321 B.C.), 
which now came to rule the empire, belonged to the 
Sudra caste. We know this from the Greek historians 
of Alexander's invasion of India, which took place 
towards the end of the Nanda rule. 

To that celebrated invasion we must now turn our 
attention. From the inscriptions of 
Darius Hystaspis, the Achemenian king vasf(frfof India" 
of Persia, jve know -that he extended 
his empire as far as the Indus. This appears to have 


happened about 512 B.C. The province, or satrapy of 
the Indus Valley was considered the richest and most 
populous possession of the Persian empire. It was, no 
doubt, this part which induced Alexander the Great, after 
he had overthrown the Persian empire; to attempt to 
push the limits of his own Macedonian empire still 
farther into India. 

He crossed the Indus iii the spring of ^26 B.C. at 
Ohind, not far north of the modern Attock. The 
country between the Indus and Jehlum peacefully sub- 
mitted. There the Greeks, for the first time, saw the 
Brahman Yogis, whose ascetic practices and strange 
doctrines caused them much astonishment. Between 
the Jehlum and the Chenab lay the country of the 
Pauravas. Their king, called Poros by the Greeks, was 
the first to offer a stout resistance to the mvader ; but 
he was totally defeated in a great battle, fought at 
Jehlum, on the left bank of the river of the same name. 
After this victory, Alexander met with no serious oppo- 
sition, till he reached the fortified town of Sangala, pro- 
bably not far from Amritsar. This was the capital of 
the Kathaeans, or Kathis as they are now called, who 
formed a kind of republic. With some difficulty the 
town was captured, after which Alexander continued 
his march eastward to the right bank of the Bias. Here 
his further progress towards the panges was arrested 
through the opposition of his own Macedonian troops. 
They had heard of the existence of a formidable 
"Eastern" power, which was preparing to bar their 
progress. This was the MagadbjL^jnjHie of the Nandas. 
So, being already worn'ourwTth the fatigues of a long 
campaign and the hardships of the Indian climate, they 
refused to march any farther. Alexander, after fruitless 
attempts to turn them from their purpose, was obliged 
to retrace his steps to the Jehlum. There he embarked 
on a fleet and sailed down to the mouth of the Indus. 
On the way he c<iptured the fortified capital- of the 
Malloi, or Malava, tribe, somewhere north-east of 

CH. v.] the early BUDDHIST PERIOD. 25 

Multan, and subdued the principalities on both sides of 
the old course of the Lower Indus.* Thus he had now 
completed the conquest of Sindh as well as of the 
Punjab. In order to secure his hold on these two pro- 
vinces, he found- 
ed several new 
cities, or rather 
fortifie'd Greek 
settlements — a- 


Indian Silver Coin of Alexander. 

in the 
upper and lower 
Punjab, and in 
Sindh respect- 
ively. Having thus, as lie thought, firmly established 
his conquests, he marched back to Persia. But his 
expectations were not realized. On the civilization of 
India, his invasion left practically no mark ; for what- 
ever foreign element there appears in the institutions or 
manners of the succeeding Mauryan empire, such as the 
title of Satrap (Kshatrapa), is Persian rather than Greek. 
Politically, at any rate, his conquest did not endure. 

Poros had been taken prisoner in the great battle 
on the Jehlum ; but Alexander, who ad- 
mired his personal bravery, had appoint- Empira!"''"^^ 
ed him civil administrator in the Punjab 
under the Greek Governor Philip. In 323 B.C., Poros 
was treacherously slain by Philip's successor, Eudemos. 
This murder provoked a national revolt, which was 
headed by a young adventurer, called Chandra Gupta 
Maurya. " He succeeded in putting an_end_la.thp Greek 
^domination, and in making himself the ruler of the 
^PunjaF^d Sindh. He was a native of Magadha, and 

^The old course of the Indus and its tributaries is shown r 
Map II. The present course and coast-line are indicated by d '- 




a distant connection of the Nanda dynasty ; but having 
quarrelled with his royal relatives, he had been obliged 
to flee for safety to Greek territory. Having now ex- 
pelled the Greeks and acquired some power, he deter- 
mined to revenge himself and conquer the kingdom of 
Magadha. In this enterprise he easily succeeded ; for 
the Naudas were detested on account of their tyranny. 
In 321 B.C., he captured the capital Pataliputra, and de- 
posing the Nandas, he became the founder of the famous 
Maurya dynasty. Soon afterwards, about 305 B.C., the 
Greeks under Seleukos, known as Nikator or the Con- 
queror, who had succeeded to the eastern portion of 

Alexander's empire, 
made an attempt tore- 
conquer fhejogt pro- 
vinces on the Indus. 
But the attempt utter- 
ly failed, and the result 
was that Seleukos had 
to cede to Chandra 
Gupta not only the 
Punjab and Sindh, but 
also Eastern Afghani- 
stan. Fortified by 
this success, Chandra 
Gupta proceeded to 
reduce to vassalage 
the greater part of 
India. We do not 
know the details of his 
campaigns, but the 
result was, that he 
built up the First Em- 
pire of India, wliich 
eventually equalled in 
extent the present British Indian Empire, excluding 
Burma. It reached its greatest size in the time of his 
'•andson, Asoka, who added the east coast to the empire 


^ ....^.-ri^rsfeaA*!^ 


■• " "'•"' "' '■ ' -■■■"■■ • '' -''- " — ^ 

Asoka's Column. 

Ch. v.] the early BUDDHIST PERIOD. 2/ 

by the conquest of the kingdom of Kalinga, that is, 
Orissa and the Circars. Asoka had the habit of 
causing his " Edicts/' as they are called, to be engraved 
on boulders, or on columns of stone, or in caves, all 
over the empire. Many of these still exist, and are 
witnesses to the wide extent of the Maurya Empire. 
They are found on the right side of the Indus, in the 
middle of Mysore, on the east coast near Ganjam, and 
in the Nepalese Terai, north of Basti. They prove that 
the Maurya Empire embraced the whole of India, 
approximately down to Madras, as well as Eastern 

Asoka ascended the throne in 2"] 2 B.C., but, appa- 
rently his succession being disputed by 
an elder brother, he was not formally Asoka's Reign, 
crowned till four years later. He began 
his rule in the spirit of his grandfather, Chandra Gupta, 
by the conquest of Kalinga. But the horrors of that 
war, and the admonitions of Buddhist monks made 
such an impression on his mind as to cause an entire 
change of character. He even went, towards the end 
of his reign, so far as to become a Buddhist monk. He 
also now adopted the new name Piyadassi, or the 
Gracious, by which he calls himself in his Edicts. For 
the remainder of his reign, which is said to have lasted 
altogether 41 years (272-231 B.C.), he became one of 
the most benificent rulers that India has seen. His 
Edicts give us a vivid picture of the care which he bes- 
towed on the administration of his empire. He planted 
trees along the roads, dug wells and canals for irrigation, 
built rest-houses for travellers and hospitals for the sick, 
and held regular assemblies at intervals of three or five 
years for the proper instruction of his officials. He 
maintained a special staff of high officers to watch over 
the interests of the poor and the aged, to mitigate the 
severity of the criminal laws, and to restrain the exces- 
sive destruction of animal life. With regard to the last 
point he set a personal example by abolishing the 



customary royal hunting parties and replacing them by 
pilgrimages. In one of these pilgrimages, twenty years 
after his coronation, he visited the birthplace of Buddha 
at Rummin Dei in the Nepalese Terai, and there set up, 
in commemoration ol his visit, an inscribed stone pillar, 
which still exists, to mark the spot where Buddlia was 
born. The propagation of Buddhism was a particular 
object oi" his solicitude. He sent missionaries not only 

into the remoter 
parts of his empire, 
such as Gujarat, Af- 
ghanistan, Kashmir 
and Nepal, but also 
into the independent 
kingdoms of South 
India, and to Ceylon. 
In the latter country, 
Asoka's son, or, ac- 
cording to another 
tradition, his young- 
er brother, Mahen- 
dra, is said to have 
introduced B u d d- 
hism. It is not im- 
probable that but for 
Asoka's missionary 
efforts. Buddhism 
would never have 
spread much beyond 
the limits of Maga- 
dha, nor have become 
one of the most 
wide- spread religions 
of the world, 
excellent policy appears to have been 
continued by his grandson, Dasaratha. 
This we ma}' perhaps conclude h'om his 
inscriptions that still exist carved on the 

View of Rummin Dei and the Asoka Column 



Ch. v.] the early BUDDHIST PERIOD. 29 

walls of the Nagarjuni Caves near Gaya, which he 
caused to be constructed for the benefit of the Ajivika 
(a sect of Jain) monks. Bul after him the dynasty 
rapidly declined, and after another three or four feeble 
reigns, Brihadratha, the last of the Mauryas, was dethron- 
ed by his rebellious general, Pushyamitra, who founded 
the Sunga dynasty. This happened about 185 B.C. 

A point of particular interest with regard to Asoka 
is thatin the 13th of his Rock-edicts,he fa • 

names five Greek kings as contempor- ind\?n° Histopy! 
aries of himself One of them is Antio- 
chusTheos, king of Syria, who was a grandson of Seleukos 
Nikator, the contemporary of Asoka's grandfather, 
Chandra Gupta. It is this double synchronism which has 
enabled us, with the help of the Greek dates which are 
well-known, to fix, in the otherwise undated history of 
ancient India, acentral date from which we can calculate 
approximately, backwards and forwards, the dates of 
many other important events. 

The foundation of the First Indiimjlm^e of the 
Mauryas was only one of the two great 

events of this period. The other was the J^^ , J?^^® °^ . 
c ^x ^ ^ u- ^ Buddhism and 

rise 01 the two great monastic systems jainism. 

known as Buddhism and Jainism. It has 
already been shown in the account of the preceding 
period that there existed small groups of men who, 
dissatisfied with the popular religion of polytheism and 
sacrifice, had withdrawn from the world to devote them- 
selves to a monastic life of religious speculation. Such 
speculation was at first closely connected with the study 
of the Vedas. Hence, naturally, the men who adopted 
the monastic life were mostly drawn from the Brahman 
caste who were the guardians of the Vedic lore. But as 
yet they lived by themselves or in small independent 
groups. There was no general organization or "Order" 
to which all these Brahraanic monks belonged. The 
innovaPion, introduced by the founders of Buddhism and 
Jainism, consisted just in these two points : that they 


organized all their followers into a regular Society or 
Order, and that, being Kshatriyas themselves, they drew 
their followers mainly from the Kshatriya and the other 
non-Brahmanic classes of the people. They did not 
S*efuse to admit Brahmans into their Order, but within it 
they rejected all Brahmanic pretensions to superiority. 
This policy, no doubt, produced a certain degree of 
antagonism between their Societies and the general 
brahmanically constituted community around them. 
But it is quite erroneous to look upon them as revolts 
against the tyranny of caste. They never thought of 
rejecting the system of caste as a regulating factor of 
the general community outside their own Order. 

Siddhartha — better know^n as Gautama — the founder 
. of Buddhism, and Mahavira the founder 

Jainfs^^^ ^ of Jainism, were scions of princely houses. 
They were contemporaries, though Ma- 
havira was somewhat older than Gautama and died 
some years before him, about 490 B.C., at the age of 
seventy-two. Gautama died, eighty years old, about 483 
B.c Not much is known of Mahavira's personal history. 
He belonged to the Naya or Nata clan of Kshatriyas, 
who were settled near the large town of Vaisali, said to 
be represented by the village of Besarh, about tw^enty- 
seven miles north of Patna. That town was the capital 
of a small oligarchical republic, and Mahavira w^as the 
younger son of one of its ruling Rajas or chiefs. At the 
age of thirty he retired from the world, and joined a 
small monastic community of Parsvanath which lived 
near Vaisali. From this Society, how^ever, he separated 
after two years, in order to establish another of his own 
with more stringent rules of conduct. In a long wander- 
ing life of forty-two years he succeeded in gathering a 
considerable following of monks in the principal towns 
of North and South Bihar. At first they were known 
as the Nirgranthas^ or men who have discarded all 
social bonds ; but after Mahavira's death, whe.j they 
spread over the whole of India, they became know^n as 

Ch. v.] the early BUDDHIST PERIOD. 31 

>aaLa>UJiilUlWXl the Jains. Under that 

name they still exist in 

.1. ivi jii*.*! JL I -, I .toil J various parts of India. 
HXU/^aSta dl»fDU ^tni Mahavira claimed 

to be a /ma or 
C^i^^r^/^-fStk^^Otfd mCd). Spiritii ^l Conq ner-_ 

or, just as Gautama" 
{^>(ff^i\l!. t'<^^li L o-i/^"*"C claimed to be a 


BiiddhojOr ^ Rnlight- 
ened One. Hence 
their respective fol- 

Asoka Inscription on the Column at lowers are kuOVVn aS 

Rummin Dei. the Jaius and the 

Bauddhas or Buddists. 
Gautama belonged to the Sakyas, one of the 
proudest of the Kshatriya clans. This 
clan was settled in a small territory Life of Buddha. 
between the upper Rapti and the Gan- 
dak. Its capital was Kapilavastu, which stood on the 
site of the present village of Piprahva, in the north-east- 
ern corner of the Basti district in the United Provinces 
of Agra and Oudh. The actual spot where Gautama 
was born was the Lumbini Park, about six miles north- 
east of Kapilavastu, in the Nepalese Terai. It is now 
called Rummin Dei, and is marked by a still-existing, 
inscribed column erected by Asoka. He was born as 
the eldest son of Suddhodana, the Raja or chief of the 
Sakya clan. As heir to the chieftainship and the son of 
a wealthy family, he was provided with everything that 
man could wish to make him happy. But Gautama 
was naturally of an observant ar.^ thoughtful disposi- 
tion. The sig ht of so much decay and sufferin gjjTOund 
hirn_es cited his~ compassion, and set him thinking how 
the ills j)Mjfe^m£ht_be_cure3^ PTe cared more for 
meditation in solitude, than for the youthful sports of 
his prin^ly companions. His father, who was afraid 
of his monkish predilections, married him to a fair and 
loving Sakya princess ; but this bond had no permanent 



effect on Gautama. When he was twenty-nine years 
old — soon after a son had been born to him, and thus 
the succession had been secured — lie finally resolved, in 
'^V'^ spite ot the tears and entreaties of wife and father, to 
' ^», renounce his position and his home, and to adopt a 
monk's vocation. He went to North Bihar, where he 
attached himself successively to two Brahman ascetics 
renowned for their wisdom. Their teaching, however, 
did not satisfy him ; and now he commenced a seven 
years' life of wandering and severe asceticism, in the 
hope of discovering the truth regarding the cure of the 
ills of life. His austerities gradually reduced him almost 
to a skeleton, and brought him to death's door. But 
they did not give him the knowledge he sought, and 
the conviction was forced on him that he was on a false 
track ; so he returned to a reasonable mode of life. 
Then at the end of the seventh year, when he was 
thirty-six years old, one night as he sat under a pipal 

tree in the neighbourhood of Gaya, 
absorbed in solitary meditation, 
there suddenly came to him, like a 
revelation, the solution of his prob- 
lem. We shall see presently what 
that solution was. In the mean- 
time, let us follow him, as over- 
joyed by his discovery he rose up^ 
took food and drink, and spent a 
month in the recovery of his 
strength. Then he set out to pro- 
K_ -y^-'^^i^ claim to the world the great revela- 

f- ■iie^^^^w^ tion which he had received. But 

, before doingso, he had to overcome 

a great temptation, suggested, as 

he thought, by Mara, or the Evil 

(From an andeiit uuiptutc) One. The cxaltatiou causcd by his 

discovery was naturally followed 
by a reaction of despondency and doubt as to wfiether 
he should ever be able to persuade his fellowmen of its 

Buddha under the Tree. 

Ch. v.] the early BUDDHIST PERIOD. 


reality. But with his returning bodily strength, the 
temptation gave way to an abiding confidence in the 
success of his missionary enterprise. The first place 
which he visited was Benares. Here he secured his first 
disciples, and founded his Society, or "Order" of monks. 
Thence he wandered up and down the country, from 
town to town, and village to village, through the whole 
of South and north Bihar, and as far as his native Sakya 
country. In this way he went on for forty-four years, 
wandering and preaching ; and his Order grew apace in 
number^;. At last he~died, eighty years old, in Kusinagara 
about 483 B.C. His body was cremated with much cere- 
mony, and his relics were distributed among his adher- 
ents. His princely Sakya relatives carried their share— 
a few bits of bone— to Kapilavastu, where they enclosed 
it in a stone box, and built over it a huge slupa or pyra- 
midal monument. This is the Piprahva Stupa, the ruins 
of which still exist, and there Buddha's bones have re- 
cently been brought to light in their stone box. 

» A 





■''■''■.-•'.»->'>.--'-■.■■■ -■ :-' l^"ii^ - '' ^'iNri^BlJB 

View of the oldest Stupa at Sanchi. 

But 'what was Buddha's great discovery ? We shall 
try briefly to explain it. We have seen how sensitive 


Gautama was to the misery which he 
Doeo'ine! ^^^^' everywhere around him ; the labour 

and oppression of the poor, the rivalries 
and disappointments of the rich ; sickness, old age and 
death for all. It was not merely the physical suffering 
that moved him, but even more the mental suffering of 
men. " Whence comes all this misery ?" he asked himself; 
and his reply was : " All men strive after an enjoyable life, 
and in the universal struggle for it they cannot but hurt 
one another ; no one can secure the good things of this 
world but at the expense of others ; hence comes the 
general misery." " But how can this evil be remedied ?" 
So Gautama asked next. Several replies were possible. 
The ordinary man said : "Death will end man's misery 
and bring him peace." "Not so," objected Buddhaj_^r 
there is the transmigration of souls ca.useijr^j^arma, 
or the acts, good or bad, of one's life. When a man- 
dies, he is only re-born into another life of misery ; 
and so onwards without end." Here comes in that 
belief in transmigration which had grown up in the 
preceding period, and in which Gautama as firmly be-_ 
lieved as did all his contemporaries. But there was 
another reply given by the Brahmanical monks. They 
said that a man's misery is caused only by his ignorance. 
If he once comes to understand that the whole visible 
world is but an illusion, and that he himself is really one 
with God or the World-Soul who exists in perfect happi-~ 
ness, then his misery disappears. This is the reply 
which Gautama received from the two Brahmanical 
teachers to whom he first applied for enhghtenment. It 
did not satisfy him ; it seemed to him rather a mockery. 
For whatever he might tki7ik about the reality of the 
world, he could not help feeling the reality of the 
misery of life. So Gautama went in search of a truer 
r^ reply. At last he found one ; and it was a very simple 
a reply. It was this: "Seeing that the misery of life is 
\\ caused by man's striving after the good things of this 
\ j life, let him give up that striving, and then he will have 

Ch. v.] the early BUDDHIST PERIOD. 35 

peace." Gautama tried this remedy in his own case, 
and he found that it was true. He knew the secret of 
deliverance. He now was Buddha, thaTisr' ^^r^gk tgagdv^' 
BiiOtiere' still leuralnHTaTourth questTOTr"r**How is rnarr 
to give up the striving after the good things of life ?" 
Buddha replied : " He can do so b y self-disc ipline ; he 
must train himsell to it by beirTg right iiTthe following 
eight points : — In belief and desire, in speech and act, / 
in life and work, in feeling and thougHf." In short,-there I 
is enough in the world to satisfy all ; therefore, let a man \ 
exercise self-denial, contentment, and consideration for j 
others. Living thus, he will attain peace," or JSliyva?ia, 
aFBuddha called it. It will thus be seen that BuddHa'S 
system was a thoroughly practical one ; not one of 
religion, but of morality. It was summed up by him in 
the so-called "Four Truths,'' and the "Eightfold Path," 
above explained. No doubt, his system had also under 
its surface deeper thoughts which were summed up in 
the so-called "Chain of Twelve Causes." But this 
philosophy was taught by him only to his more advanc- 
ed disciples, and it need not detain us here. It will now 
be understood that Buddha did not mean to teach a 
new religion in opposition to the prevailing popular 
Brahmanism. What he wanted t o do wasJ : o found a > 
Society__ of men who should take a vow t^practise a. 
rig hteous life^ such as he conceived it. That character 
of "a JVlonastic Order his Society retained in India for 
many centuries. Gradually, as his teaching spread to 
peoples who were not Indians, a kind of deification of 
Buddha sprang up, and his system turned into a popular^ 
religion. This, however, is a development wBfch took 
place in the succeeding period, as will be explained in 
Chapter VI. 

Up to the time of Asoka the Buddhist Order was 
practically confined to Bihar, outside of c v • 

which Brahmanism prevailed. But Language 

through She missionary efforts of Asoka, 
after his conversion to Buddhism, the latter faith spread 


over the whole of India. A few words may be said 
here regarding the condition of Indian civihzation under 
the Brahmanic influence. One of the most striking 
points is the use ofSan skrit as a hte rary language, 
distinct from the "older language of tITe~Yedas, and the 
upgrowth of a Sanskrit Literature. We have seen in the 
preceding period that the study of the Vedas was the 
special function of_the_ Brahmans . Now, the Vedas could 
not be studied without a knowledge ot grammar. Thus 
teachers of grammar arose in the Brahmanic schools, 
who laid down rules as to what was to be considered 
the correct form of their language. The most successful 
among these teachers was a grammarian named Panini, 
who probably lived about 350 B.C. He wrote a text- 
book, called the Ashtadhyayi, that is, the book of eight 
chapters. It superseded all other text-books on grammar, 
and thenceforth no book was considered as written in 
Sanskrit, that is, in "refined" or "correct" language, 
unless it conformed to his rules. For some centuries, 
however, Sanskrit remained the exclusive property of 
the Brahmanic schools. Outside these schools, in the 
king's offices, and in the schools of the Buddhist and 
Jain monastic Orders, the language spoken by the people 
of the country was used for literary purposes. Thus 
most of the Edicts of Asoka are written in the popular 
language of Magadha, commonly called Pali or Prakrit. 
So also are the early Sacred Books of the Buddhists and 
the Jains. It was only in the course of the next period 
that Sanskrit was generally adopted as the language of 
all public and private records. 

Though the art of writing, as we shall see, was not 

unknown in this period, it was not yet 
if^rature admitted as a means of instruction in the 

Brahmanic schools. Everything was 
done by memory. But by this time the details in ritual 
and custom, preserved in the Brahmanas and in floating 
tradition, had grown to such enormous dimensions, that 
memory, unaided, was unequal to the task ot master- 


ing them. Hence it became customary in the schools 
to compile short Manuals, called Siilras. They are so 
famous for their excessive conciseness that the whole 
period has sometimes been called the Sutra Period. 
Such manuals were compiled for every department of 
knowledge which was taught at that time. Thus we 
have the Srauta Sutras or Manuals for performing Sacri- 
fices ; the Grihya Sutras, or Manuals of Domestic Rites; 
the Dharma Sutras, or Manuals of Civil and Criminal 
Law. We have also a Sutra on Astronomy; and Panini's 
Grammar itself is a Sutra. The whole of this technical 
literature came to be known by the name of Smriti, or 
Tradition, to distinguish it from the literature of the 
preceding period which was looked upon as Sruti, or 
Revelation But "light literature" was not neglected 
by the Brahmans. It was in this period that the scat- 
tered legends and ballads, which described stirring 
incidents of the early history of the Indo-Aryans, were 
collected to form the two celebrated epic poems, the 
Mahabharata and the Ramayana. By the side of this 
Brahmanic literature there gradually grew up a large 
body of Buddhist and Jain literature which dealt with 
the peculiar beliefs and practices of those two monastic 
Orders. That of the Buddhists is known by the collective 
name of the Tripitaka, or Three Baskets, while the sacred 
books of the Jains are called Againas, or Traditions. 

All this literature enables us to form a fairly accurate 
idea of the religious, social and intel- . 

lectual condition of the people at this condition, 
period. Forthe time of the great Maurya 
Empire especially we have also the witness of Asoka's 
inscriptions and of the reports of Megasthenes. The 
latter was a Greek who resided for several years in Patali- 
putra as the ambassador of Seleukos, a Greek king, to 
the court of Chandra Gupta. From these sources we 
know that the Brahmanical system of caste was at this 
time flourishing throughout India. It governed not only 
the social relations of the people, but also the civil and 


criminal administration of the country. The different 
castes were differently taxed. The criminal laws were 
cruelly severe, but the penalties were lightened in propor- 
tion to the offender's caste. The general government 
of the country was a pure autocracy of the king or 
emperor, more or less tempered by respect for the cus- 
tomary Brahmanical laws, or by (ear of the ruling classes, 
or, as in the case of Asoka, by natural kindness of heart. 
As to the popular rehgion, the people were divided 
mainly into the great sections of the Vaishnavas and 
Saivas. By the side of the Brahmanical schools there 
existed numerous individuals or groups of men, devoting 
themselves to religious speculation and ascetic practices. 
Their object was the same as that of Gautama Buddha — 
to find a way of salvation. But they searched for it in 
opposite directions. Some were followers of the so- 
called Vedania, and their speculations were theistic, 
while the others followed the so-called Sankhya, which 
was a kind of atheistic speculation. Both also practised 
Yoga, or ascetic exercises, by which they thought their 
minds became better fitted for contemplation. But at 
this time these philosophies had not yet formed regular 
Schools. Hence there did not yet exist any philoso- 
phical Sutras, or Manuals. The earliest known manual 
of this kind is the Voga Sutra, composed by Patanjali, 
quite at the end of the period, about 150 B.C. 

In educational matters there was considerable activ- 
ity. The Brahmanical schools formed 
Education and something like Universities, where the 

'/" wHtin^^^ °^ Vedas, or Theology, Law, Medicine, 
i/ wpiung. ' J 4.1 

Grammar, Astronomy, and many other 

sciences were taught. Among these Universities the 

most celebrated was that of Taxila, in the Punjab. It 

was frequented by young men from Benares and other 

distant parts of India. The number of these Universities 

was limited, but by their side there existed numerous 

elementary schools in all towns They were kept 

by Brahmans for the benefit, principally, of the mer- 

Ch. V. 



cantile and land-holding classes. The subjects taught in 
them were Writing, Arithmetic and Account-keeping. 
The_ art oL-WTiting had been introduced into India 
towards the end of the preceding period, probably about 
600 B.C. At that time a maritime trade was carried on 
from Broach and other ancient ports in the Gulf of 
Cambay, above Bombay, through the Persian Gulf to 
Babylonia. In that trade an early form of the Aramaean 
script was used. This, no doubt, the Indian mariners 
learned and brought with them to their Indian home. 
Here it was taken up by the Brahmans who kept the 

elementary schools. 
In their hands it un- 
derwent considerable 
alterations to suit the 
requirements of the 
Indo-Aryan langu- 
age ; and thus it be- 
came an entirely new 
kind of writing, which 
is known as the 
Brahmi. It was pri- 
marily made in the 
interest of the Indian 
merchants and their 
inland trade. Through 
them the knowledge 
of it was gradually 
diffused throughout 
the length and 
breadth of the coun- 
try. Atthe beginning 
of the fifth century 
B.C. it was already 
known as far north 
as the Nepalese Irontier ; for the oldest known Brahmi 
inscription has been found on the box in which Buddha's 
bones were buried by his Sakya relatives in the Piprahva 

Inscribed Casket of Buddha's Relics. 



Stupa, about 483 B.C. About two centuries later (260-240 
B.C.) we find the Brahmi script in general use throughout 
India, as shown by the Edicts of Asoka. At this time, 
however, we find also an alternative script in use in the 
north-western frontier provinces of Asoka's empire. 
This kind of writing, which is now known as the 
Kharoshthi, is only a slight modification of its Aramaean 
original ; but being rather unsuited to the Indo-Aryan 
language, it soon fell into disuse, and was entirely for- 
gotten. On the other hand, the Brahmi, which is a truly 
Indian invention, maintained its ground, and has become 
the parent of all the varying scripts which, at the present 
day, are current in India. 

The Later Buddhist Period : 

The Parthian and Turki Invasions, and the 
New Buddhism. 

About B.C. ISO — A.D. 300. 

THE preceding chapter has brought us down to the 
end of the First Indian Empire 
about 185 B.C. During the whole of the ifemaS^''^ 
period which we shall now consider, 
India was politically in a very perturbed condition, and 
the exact sequence of events is, to some extent, still 
uncertain. The causes of the troubles were partly internal 
dissensions, and partly foreign invasions. The foreign 
invaders, this time, did not come from Europe, but from 
Central Asia, and belonged to two different races, the 
Parthian, and the Turki, or, as it is often called, Scythian. 
It was not till the beginning of the next period that India 
was once more united in the Second Empire of the 
Guptas, which, in extent, nearly equalled the First Empire. 
What the causes of the internal dissensions were 
we do not exactly know. One principal Causes of the 
cause appears to have been the anta- Disruption of 
gonism of Brahmanism to Buddhism the First Em- 
and Jainism. For Pushyamitra, the P^''®* 
founder of the Sunga dynasty, is said to have been a 
bitter persecutor of the Buddhists, who, as we have seen, 
were much favoured by the Maurya dynasty. The 
general dii^satisfaction, thus created, soon led to the 
disruption of the empire. The outlying provinces on 
the east, south, west, and north-west separated, and 
formed themselves into independent kingdoms, so that 
practically only the central portion, Bihar and Oudh, 
remained to the Imperial dynasty. 


The immediate cause of the disruption appears to 
have been a difference between Agnimitra 
The Indepen- and Yajnasena Satakarni. The former 
K^ U^na-a ^ was a son of Pushyamitra, and, as viceroy, 

administered the western province of 
Malwa. The latter was the governor, or feudatory, of 
the southern provinces of Vidarbha and Andhra, that is 
the present Central Provinces, Berar, and Haidarabad. 
The territories of the two governors adjoined each other, 
and an ill-considered attempt at a matrimonial alliance 
on the part of Agnimitra led to a war between them. 
In this war Satakarni was unsuccessful ; and it was pro- 
bably with the object of retrieving his failure thai, in 
1 68 B.C., he went with a large army to the assistance of 
his eastern neighbour Kharavela, the feudatory king of 
Kalinga, that is, Orissa and the Circars. Kharavela was 
a devoted Jain, and possibly that may have been the 
cause which brought him into warlike collision with his 
suzerain, the Sunga emperor, Pushyamitra. In this war, 
by a successful expedition into the very heart of the 
empire, which led him to the capital Pataliputra on the 
banks of the Ganges, Kharavela compelled the emperor 
to sue for peace and acknowledge his independence. 
We know all this from an inscription of Kharavela, in- 
cised by him, in 157 B.C., on a rock in the Udaigiri hills, 
near Cuttack. 

In the meanwhile, the fortunes of the empire had 
been equally disastrous on the extreme 
The Grseeo-Bae- north-western frontier. About the 
tpian conquest of events in this region we have the con- 
Nopth-Western^ temporary evidence of numerous coins, 
Provinces. and of the celebrated grammarian, 

Patanjali. It appears that about 180 
B.C., Demetrios, the Grecian king of Bactria, or Western 
Turkestan, had invaded and conquered the two north- 
western provinces, Afghanistan and the Punjab. About 185 
B.C. they were wrested from him by a rival called Eukrati- 
des. At the same time, another Grasco-Bactrian prince, 


Menander, or Milinda, as he^was called in India, invaded the 
province of Sindh. The immediate cause of his attack 
appears to have been a difference with the Sunga governor, 
Vasumitra, concerning a horse. In order to celebrate the 
success of Agnimitra in the war with the allied governors 
of Andhra and Kalinga, it appears that his father Pushya- 
mitra wanted to perform the great Asvamedha or "horse- 
sacrifice." The horse for this solemnity was to be sup- 
plied by Agnimitra's son, Vasumitra, who was the 
governor of Sindh, and the quarrel with Menander some- 
how arose on this account. Menander not only conquered 
Sindh, but the adjoining western provinces of Gujarat 
and Malwa. He carried his victorious arms even as far 
as Ayodhya in Oudh, to which he laid siege, and Sakala, 
near Amritsar, in the Western Punjab. Thus he built up 
a very widely extended dominion, over which he appears 
to have ruled for many years, down to about 130 B.C. 

In the meantime there had appeared on the borders 
of India a formidable foe who soon over- 
threw the whole of the Grseco-Bactrian invasion^^ 
kingdoms. These were the Sakas, a sec- 
tion of the great Turki, or Scythian, race. Their original 
settlements had been in Eastern Turkestan. Thence 
they were driven out, about 160 B.C., by the so-called 
Yuechi, another section of the same race. They migrat- 
ed to India, probably across the passes of the Karako- 
rum Range, and through the valleys of the Indus. 
Having reached India, one portion marched west irito 
Afghanistan, conquering the numerous small Gneco- 
Bactrian sovereignties which had established themselves 
after Eukratides' death, under Strato, Lysias, and other 
princes. They chiefly settled in the western part of 
Afghanistan, which hence came to be called Sakasthayia, 
or the country of the Sakas, being the modern Seistan. 
The best known of their kings, about 90 B.C., was 
Azes. The other portion of the invading Sakas occupied 
the Punjab, and gradually extended their conquest over 
the whole of the territory once belonging to Menander, 




i.e., Sindh, Gujrat and Malwa. Each of these provinces 
was ruled by a governor, or Kshatrapa (Satrap), as he 
was called. From two inscriptions of Shodasa, the 
Satrap of Mathura, and Liaka, the Satrap of Taxila 
(Shah Dheri in the Punjab), we know that, about no 
B.C., this portion of the Sakas was ruled by a king called 
Mogas or Maues. 

We have now followed the fortunes of the Sunga_ 

Empire down to about loo B.C., and 
The Revolt of traced its extensive losses in the east^ 
Ex?inc?ion"of Si ^^'^^V and north-west. Not long after- 
First Empire. wards it lost also its great southern 

province of Andhra, now represented 
by the Central Provinces, Berar and Haidarabrid. From 
the very confused account of the Puranas, when fairly 
construed, it appears that, about 117 B.C., a Simgabhri- 
tya, or minister of the Sunga emperor, Vasudeva 
by name, who was a Brahman of the Kanva family, 
usurped the imperial power. For forty-five years he 
and his descendants, known as the Kanvayana dynasty, 
ruled the empire, just like the Peshwas in later times, 
while the members of the Sunga dynasty continued to 
be the nominal sovereigns. The establishment of this 
Brahman rule apparently only served to intensify the 
prevailing sectarian animosity. Anyhow, about 73 B.C., 
the governor of the Andhra province, called simply 
Satakarni, revolted. He subverted both the actual 
Kanvayana and the nomial Sunga dynasties (about 117- 
j-i, and 135-73 B.C., respectively), and himself seized 
the paramount power. With this event the First 
Indian Empire became extinct. The central portion, 
Bihar and Oudh, now sank to the position of an insigni- 
ficant province, while in the west, south, and east res- 
pectively, the great kingdoms of the Sakas, Andhras, 
and Kalingas took its place. Of the subsequent fortunes 
of theceniral portion nothing definite is known until the 
rise of the Second Indian Empire of the Guptas in tha 
next period. From the confused account in the Fnranas 


only this much may be concluded, that the unhappy 
country was torn by a succession of i jit ernal rrm festg^f 
jTvalia C-tions belonging to diffe r ent castes and tribes . Of 
the fortunes of the Kalinga kingdom also nothing is known 
for manv centuries, till about 6io A.D., when we find it 
ruled by Indravarman of the Ganga dynasty. 

Let us now return to the history of the Saka 
kingdom. We have seen that it was 
divided into a number of "Satrapies," The Parthian 
subject to a paramount sovereign who the^^'vikr^ma 
called himself the " King of Kings." Era. 
On the west it was adjoined by the 
Parthian kingdom, which at that time was in a state of 
great political disorder. The exact cause of the occur- 
rence we do not know, but from extant coins it appears 
that, about 60 B.C., Arsaces Theos, or the Divine, a scion 
of the Arsacide dynasty of Parthia, invaded the Saka 
territory. To meet this attack the Sakas had naturally 
to withdraw their forces from the eastern parts of their 
kingdom. The opportunity, thus created, was utilized 
by the warlike clans of the Malavas to combine and rise 
against their Saka satrap. A great battle was fought by 
them, as it is said, at Karor in the Punjab, in which the 
Sakas were totally defeated. This was in 57 B c, and 
it is most probably from this epoch of the Malava rising 
against the Saka rule that the Malava or, as it is now 
called, the Vikrama era dates. It has received the latter 
name from a king, Vikramaditya, who, as we shall see 
in the next period, also achieved at the head of the 
Malava clans, a great victory over the Huns about A.D. 
525. The Saka kingdom, which was thus attacked both 
in the east and west, fell to pieces. In its place arose the 
Indo-Parthian kingdom, which, however, itself enjoyed 
but a very short period of existence. This kingdom reach- 
ed the zenith of its power and extent under Gondophares, 
whose long reign, according to a still-existing inscription, 
began a6out 20 a.d. But not very long after him, it was 
overthrown bv the second Turki invasion of the Kushanas. 


We have seen that about i6o B.C., the Sakas were 
driven out of their original settlements 
The Kushana in Eastern Turkestan by the Yuechi, 
the^aka Era"'^ another section of the same Turki race. 
The Yuechi, in their turn, were expelled 
by the Uighur, or Usun, a third section of that race, and 
migrated into Western Turkestan, which they gradually 
occupied in force on both sides of the Oxus. The 
Yuechi were divided into five tribes, the principal of 
which was the Kushana. About 60 a.d., the chief of the 
latter, Kadphises I, having united the five tribes into one 
kingdom, proceeded to conquer Afghanistan, and then 
to attack the Indo-Parthian kingdom of India. The 
troubles thus created in that kingdom, were utilized by 
its Saka satraps in Gujarat for the assertion of their own 
independence. This was in 78 A.D., and it is probably 
from this event that the so-called Saka era dates. 
Kadphises I eventually succeeded in overthrowing the 
Indo-Parthian kingdom, and in establishing in its place 
the Kushana empire. Of India, however, that empire 
never included much more than the Punjab and Kashmir, 
while its larger portion lay outside India ; for this reason 
it cannot strictly be classed as an Indian empire. Its 
widest extent was reached under Kanishka, who, as the 
consensus of numismatic, epigraphic, literary and other 
evidences renders ver)' probable, came to the throne 

about 125 A.D. He 
added Kashmir to the 
empire, and pushed its 
Indian frontier as far 
as Mathura. He be- 
came also a convert 
to Buddhism, and in 
commemoration of 
the fact struck medals 

Kanishka's Gold Coin of Buddha. bearing Buddha's 

efifigy. About 152 
A.D., Kanishka was succeeded by Huvishka, and he by 


Vasudeva. Their combined reigns, both of which were 
very long, lasted down to about 225 a.d. The subse- 
quent course of events is not well known, but this much 
is certain that the Kushana Empire gradually broke up. 
This was due, at first, probably to invasions of the new 
Sassanian dynasty of Persia, which was founded in 226 
A.D., and finally to the conquests of the Second Indian 
Empire of the Guptas, which arose in the next period. 

The confederacy of the Malava clans, as we have 
seen, succeeded in throwing off the Saka 
yoke in 57 B.C. They appear, as we Sla^'lltpapy^ 
know from their coins, to have preserved 
their independence for nearly 200 years. But in Gujarat 
the Saka rule does not appear to have ever been entirely 
subverted. On the contary, the satraps of that province 
continued to rule in dependence on the Indo-Parthian 
" King of Kings" and, as we have seen, they succeeded 
in establishing their independence in 78 A.D., during the 
last struggles of those kings with the Kushana invaders. 
We know from certain inscriptions that in 119 a.d., 
Gujarat was ruled by an independent Saka satrap, called 
Nahapana, who had included Malwa, with its capital 
Ujain, in his dominions. About 124 a.d., he was de- 
feated by the Andhra king, Gautamiputra. The victor 
annexed Malwa, and placed it in charge of another Saka 
Chief, called Chashtana, who is mentioned by the cele- 
brated contemporary Greek geographer, Ptolemy, about 
139 A.D., as ruling in Ujain under the name of Tiastenes. 
He took possession also of Gujarat and founded a new 
dynasty, the members of which afterwards adopted the 
title oi Maha-kshatrapa, and are commonly known as the 
" Western Satraps." The third of this dynasty, Rudra- 
daman, who had married a daughter of the Andhra king 
Pulomavi II, quarrelled with his father-in-law, made 
himself independent, and re-established the " Great 
Satrapy" or kingdom of Saurashtra, which included both 
Malwa and Gujarat. On the rock of Junagarh, which 
bears an inscription of Asoka, he proudly added one of 


his own, in 150 a.d., in which he records his pohtical 
achievements as well as his works of pubh'c utihty. His 
dynasty, which by this time had become thoroughly 
Indianised, comprised twenty-seven members, all but the 
first bearing Indian names. The last of them, called 
Rudrasnnha, reigned well into the next period, down to 
about 395 A.D., when the " Great Satrapy " was annexed 
to the Second Indian Empire by Chandra Gupta II. 

In the beginning of its existence the "Great Satrapy" 

had to figlit repeatedly for its indepen- 
The King-dom of dence against a formidable foe on its 
and thl^^KaS eastern frontier. Here lay the great 
ehuri Epa. kingdom of the Andhras. The origin 

of this kingdom is still imperfectly 
known. It appears tiiat at the time of the Maurya 
empire, the southern portion of the latter, lying between 
the Narbada and the Kistna, was in the occupation of 
three peoples, the Rathiyas (or Rashtrikas), Satiyas, and 
Andhras, in its western, northern and eastern parts res- 
pectively. The chiefs among the Rathiyas were called 
Maharathivas, and from them their country took the 
name of Maharashtra But while their country, as well 
as that of the Satiyas, had become so thoroughly 
aryanized that they had adopted the Aryan language 
(Marathi) of their rulers, the eastern portion, ruled by 
the Andhra chiefs, had remained, as we saw in Chapter 
V, partially Dravidian, and had retained its Telugu 
language. These Andhra chiefs had their capital at 
Dharnikot, near the mouth of the Kistna, and, as early 
as 300 B.C., as we know from the reports of Megas- 
thenes, ruled a powerful kingdom. Later, as we know 
from Asoka's Edicts, their country formed the southern 
province of the Maurya Empire. With the decline of that 
empire, about 200 B c, Simuka, the Governor or Viceroy 
of the Andhra province, assumed a practically indepen- 
dent position, and founded the Andhra dynasty. He and 
his brother Krishna even extended their rule westward 
and northward over North Maratha and Eastern Malwa. 


His son, Sri Satakarni, the tliird of the dynasty, as we 
have seen, in alh'ance with Kharavela, the governor of 
Kalinga, about 168 B.C., went to war with the Sunga 
emperor Pushyamitra. About j'^ B.C., another Satakarni, 
the sixth of the line, slew both the Sunga emperor 
Devabhuti and his Brahman minister Susarman, who 
had made themselves detested by their depravity. 
Having thus put an end to the Sunga and Kanvayana 
dynasties, he assumed the paramount power of the em- 
pire. Hala, the seventeenth of the dynasty, about 62 
A.D., is noteworthy as being the reputed author of the 
Sapta-sotaka, or Seven Centuries, the well-known anto- 
logy of erotic verses in the Prakrit language. But its 
widest extent the Andhra kingdom attained under 
Satakarni Gautamiputra, the twenty-third of the dynasty 
(about 106-130 A.D.), who, about 124 A. D., defeated the 
before-mentioned Nahapana, king of the Great Satrapy, 
and added his Gujarat and Malwa provinces to his own 
dominions. These now extended right across India from 
the eastern to the western coast, and from north of the 
Vindhya to Mysore in the south. The new provinces, 
however, as previously related, were again lost under 
his son Pulomavi II, Vasishtiputra (about 127-155 A.D.), 
to Rudradaman, the Great Satrap. Early in his reign, 
Pulomavi II seems to have acted at Paithan as viceroy 
of his lather, who himself resided at Kolhapur. They 
are both mentioned as synchronous rulers (about 127- 
130 A.D ) by their contemporary Ptolemy, Alter Pulo- 
mavi II the Andhra power gradually declined, till it 
came to an end with Pulomavi III. Little is known of 
the exact circumstances under which this event occurred. 
But it appears that, about 221 A.D., the Andhras were 
displaced in their south-western province of Banwasi by 
their ministers, known as Andhra-bhrityas, of the Chutu 
race, who ruled that province till they were themselves 
displaced by the Kadamba chiefs. About the same time 
the south-eastern provinces, which had been the original 
part of the Andhra kingdom, seem to have passed into 


the possession of Pallava chiefs, with their capitals at 
Vengi and Kanchipur fConjeveram). The Andhra 
dynasty, which still continued to rule in the northern 
provinces, was finally extinguished about 249 A.D., by 
Isvarasena, an Abhira chief, who founded the Traiku- 
taka dynast}'. Hence, that year became the epoch of a 
new era, which is now commonly known as the Kala- 
churi or Chedi era. The Andhra dynasty, which is 
known also as the Satavahana, or Salivahana, comprised 
altogether thirty members, who reigned about 49 years 
(200 B.C. — 249 A.D.). As to the states into which the 
great kingdom of the Andhras was split up, they were 
all, as we shall see in the next chapter, brought into 
subjection to the Second Empire of the Guptas. 

Having traced the political history of India, we must 
(^^ now briefly turn our attention to the 

General Condi- general condition of the people during 
people^ ^^^^ period. Here the most important 

event is the complete transformation 
of Buddhism from a mere monastic Order into a new, 
popular religion. This transformation, in its turn, gradu- 
ally changed the whole condition of Indian religion, 
society and thought. It finally resulted, as we shall see 
in the next period, in that complex form of Indian civil- 
ization which is summed up in the term Hinduism. 
Primitive Buddhism, as before explained, was a system 
of practical ethics, of self-discipline and 
Buddhism^ regard for others, superadded to the 

ancient religious speculations of the 
Brahmans regarding the destiny of man. This two-fold 
teaching was the product of Indian thought, and harmon- 
ised with the feelings of the Indian people. But when 
it came to be propagated among peoples whose mode of 
thought and aspirations were entirely different from the 
Indian, it necessarily underwent an essential change. 
This propagation, we have seen, had begun under Asoka. 
His missionaries carried Buddhism into the north-western 
provinces of his empire, into the Punjab and Afghanistan. 


Here it came into contact with the Grecian culture, 
which, since Alexander's invasion, and under his succes- 
sors (the Grteco-Bactrian kings), had been in the ascend- 
ant in those regions. Later on, when those regions were 
occupied by the Sakas and Kushanas, Buddhism, along 
with the Grecian culture, was readily adopted b)' these 
uncivilized Turki people. To them, Brahmanism, with 
its exclusive caste system, was repellent, while Buddhism, 
with its good-will toward all men, naturally proved 
attractive. But to meet their aspirations the Buddhist 
teachers had to teach something more simple than pure 
Buddhism. These people did not want a system of 
ethics, but gods~"wtro m they could see j-'arrd tu whom 
they could pray. So Buddha was gradually changed 
into a divinity, and the prevailing Greek Art supplied 
his images, which hitherto had been unknown in 
Buddhism. The latter, once a select Order of ascetic 
monks, now grew into a new popular religion, with a 
pantheon of Buddhas and Bodhisatvas and attendant 
deities and demons, whose images were adored in 
spacious temples, with pompous ceremonials, and in 
Hoisy festivals. This new Buddhism, as it embraced 
the whole people, was called the Mahayana, or the 
Great Vehicle, in contrast with the Hinayana, or the 
Little Vehicle, of the primitive Buddhism, which had 
been only for the select few. Just as the emperor 
Asoka had been the patron of the latter, so now the 
emperor Kanishka became the patron of the former. 
Under him, a council of Buddhist leaders took place 
at Jalandhar in the Punjab, where apparently the Canon, 
or the collection of the Sacred Books of the Mahayana, 
was fixed ; and thus the new Buddhism received its 
official sanction. Asvaghosha, the poet and patriarch, 
who was a contemporary of Kanishka, wrote for it a 
book of devotion, called Buddha Charita, being a 
legendary Life of Buddha. Its great apostle, about 180 
A.D., was the celebrated Nagarjuna, who wrote the 
Prajnaparamita, or, the Perfected Wisdom, a book which 



was regarded as the highest authority on the Mahay ana 
form of Buddhism. In the course of his long hfe, 
Nagarjuna spread the new Buddhism throughout the 
whole of India. It was only in Ceylon that the older 
form, the Hinayana, survived. There it exists to the 
present day, while the Mahayana has perished in India. 
Though the new Buddhism enjoyed the general 
favour of the Indian people, it must not 
State of Brah-y ^^ thought that Brahmanism was entirely 
manisra. ^ abandoned. On the contrary, both sys- 

tems received from the kings gifts of land and property, 
and the people still resorted to the Biahmans for all 
domestic rites at births, marriages and deaths, and hved 
under their rules of caste. The evidence of this is 
contained in the famous Manava Dharma Shastra or 
Code of Manu, which was compiled about 200 A.D., and 
which records the system of Brahmanism as it existed 
in this period. But, no doubt. Buddhism had the 
hon's share of popular favour ; and it thus roused the 
jealousy and even the hatred of Brahmanism, which 
circumstance, as we have seen, did not remain without 
its effect on the political history of India. Another 
effect of the general fiivour shown to Buddhism, was 
the neglect of the Vedic sacrifices and ceremonials, the 
decay of the Brahmanic schools, and indifference 
to the Sanskrit language and literature. On the other 
hand, with reference to philosophy and 

PhtinTnn^^S religious speculation, Brahmanism, rous- 

rniiosopny. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ ^.^^^^.^^ ^^ Buddhism, 

developed a high degree of activity. We have already 
noticed, in the preceding period, the beginnings of the 
Vedanta, Sankhya, and Yoga philosophies. In the 
course of this period, two new systems branched off from 
the theistic Vedanta : ( i ) the Picrva Mhnamsa or 
the Primary Enquiry, which treats of the spiritual value 
of the Vedic sacrifices ; and (2) the Uttara Mimamsa 
or Secondary Enquiry, which is merely a fuller develop- 
ment of the older pantheism of the Vedanta. Similarly, 



two new systems branched off from the atheistic Sankhya : 
(i) the Vaisesh/ka, treating of physics and psychology, 
and (2) the Nyaya, treating principally of logic. Thus 
there were now six distinct philosophical schools, each 
of which was provided with its own Sutra or Manual. 

While Brahmanism thus devoted itself to the pursuit 
of the mental sciences, it was in keeping 
with the practical character of the new Sciences 

Buddhism that it no less-foster sd the arts 
and the applied sciences. Medicine, Architecture and 
Sculpture attained a high degree of perfection xlurhigl-he / 
perioj gf-llieJKjJ shana ^ empire. At Kanishka's court/ 
there flourished the great physician Charaka, whose! 
SamJiita or general text-book on Medicine is still con-\ 
sidered a standard work in India. No less renowned is ' 
the Samhita or general text-book of the great surgeon 
SusTuta, which is said to have been revised and enlarged 
by Nagarjuna. Under the influence of Greek teachers 
ot Art, and in the service of the new Buddhism, there 
arose in Afghanistan and the Punjab the famous Gandhara * 


" Rock-Temple of Kailasa." 


School of Architecture and Sculpture. It built magni- 
ficent Chaityas or temples, and Viharas or monasteries, 
and decorated them with numberless statues of the 
Buddhist pantheon, and scenes from its mythology. A 
similar school of a more Indian style flourished in 
Central India, where the still existing ruins of Bharhut, 
Sanchi, Amravati, Nasik and other places, testify to the 
skill and enterprise with which the Buddhist artists built 
their religious monuments with stone, or carved them 
out of the hving rock. 

There is a very early tradition, going back to the 
third century A.D., which tells us that 
St. Thomas, one of the twelve Apostles fipst Christian 
of Jesus Christ, visited North-western india."^^"^ ^° 
India in the reign of the Indo-Partbian 
king, Gondophares. That king himself, and multitudes 
of people with him, are said to have embraced the 
Christian faith. St. Thomas is reported to have proceeded 
afterwards to the court of another king, Mazdai, by 
wiiose command he was put to death. There is no 
good reason for rejecting this old tradition ; but the 
Christianity, thus introduced, does not appear to have 
long survived, though it would seem to have had an 
indirect effect in fashioning some parts of the popular 
Buddhism and Brahmanism of that time. At any rate, 
however, there is no truth in the story of a mission of 
St. Thomas to South India, in which part of the country 
Christianity was introduced at a much later date, pro- 
bably in the sixth century A.D., by Nestorian mission- 
aries from Persia. 

The Early Hindu Period : 

The Second, or Gupta Empire, and the Brahmanic 


About joo — 6so A.D. 

THE great event with which this period opens is the 
establishment of the Gupta, or Second Indian 

Empire. India, which, at the end of the 
Rema.pks.^''^ preceding period, we saw broken up into 

a number of large kingdoms, was now 
reunited by it under one all-embracing rule. But this 
rule lasted only a little more than two centuries, after 
which India relapsed into its former condition of political 
disunion. At first there was a number of large states ; 
but these, as we shall see in the next period, in their 
turn broke up into smaller units, and the condition, thus 
created, of mutual distrust, rivalry, and warfare, rendered 
India unable to withstand the shock of the great 
Muhammadan invasion which at last surprised it near 
the end of the twelfth century. 

As has been said, after the fall of the Kanvayana 

dynasty about j"^ B.C., the old Maurya 
Dynast^"''^^ Empire had gradually shrunk to the 

small, insignificant province of Magadha, 
or Bihar. This country had been the nucleus of the 
First Empire. It now became also the starting point of 
the Second Empire. About 280 a.d., there lived in 
Magadha a person called Gupta. He probably belonged 
to the Sudra caste. How it happened we do not know ; 
but in ihe troubled political condition of that time, he 
came to the front, and succeeded in raising himself to the 



(iold coin o! Chandra Gupta and liis 
Lichhavi Queen. 

position of Maharaja, or King, of Magadlia. Hjs grand- 
son, Chandra Gupta I, 
contrived to marry a 
princess of the powerful 
clan of the Lichhavis of 
Nepal. The access of 
influence, thereby acquir- 
ed, enabled him to extend 
bis dominion as far as 
Prayaga, or Allahabad, 
and tbus to make the first 
beginning of tbe great 
Gupta Empire, This was in 320 a.d., and it is, therefore, 
from this year that the so-called Gupta era dates. But 
it was his son, Samudra Gupta, a contemporary of King 
Meghavarna of Ceylon (304-332 a.d ) who was the real 
founder of the empire. He was not only a great soldier, 
but also an accomplished man of letters. He transferred 
his capital from Pataliputra, or Patna. to Kausambi. 
There he set up a pillar, now standing in Allahabad, on 
which he engraved a record of his conquests. From this 
record we know that, in the course of his long reign of 
about fifty years (326-375 A.D.), Samudraliiipta subjected 
to^his rule the whole ot the Indian peninsuia--m£h-J:he 
exception of Gujarat and the Punjab in tTTewest, Bengal 
in_the^ast, and the small Chola and PandvjJuQgdoms 
in thelioutk Butn3ujaj^aF^^ndn5en^garwife afterwards 
added to the empire by his son Chandra Gupta II (375-4 13 
A.D.). This we know from a record on the Iron Pillar 
at Delhi, which was incised after his death in memory 
of his exploits. It will thus be seen that, as to its 
geographical limits, the Gupta Empire nearly rivaled 
that of the Mauryas. But over a very large portion the 
rule of the Guptas was only indirect, or even nominal. 
Their effective rule never extended beyond that part of 
Northern India which we call Hindustan. The states 
of the Deccan, such as the Kalachuri and Pallava, were 
only feudatory, and those of the north-east, Bengal and 



Assam paid only a nominal tribute. In the countries, 
however, which were under the direct rule of the Guptas, 
the administration, according to the testimony of the 

Iron Hillar and Qutub Minar at Delhi. 

contemporary' Chinese pilgrim Fahian, rivalled in excel- 
lence that of the great Asoka. This was specially the 
case in 'jhe reign of Chandra Gupta II and in the earlif 
years of his son Kumara Gupta I (about 413-455 A.r 



In the later years, as we know from an inscription of his 
son Skanda Gupta (about 455 480 a.d.) the empire was 
reduced to great straits. How this exactly happened 
we do not know ; but it appears to have been due to 
the aggressive unrest of some of the small semi-indepen- 
dent states on the western borders, which were fragments 
of the former great Kushana Empire. 

That empire, as we have seen in the preceding 
period, gradually broke up after 226 a.d. It survived 
into the middle of the fifth century only in the small 
kingdom of the so-called Little Kushans, who ruled in 
Kabul and Gandhara (N. W. Punjab). The other frag- 
ments of the Kushana Empire, mainlv consisting of 
foreign tribes, who occupied what is the modern Sindh 
and adjacent parts, had been brought into nominal sub- 
jection by Chandra Gupta II. It was these semi-mde- 
pendent tribes that caused the decadence of the Gupta 
Empire. The most active among them were the Pushya- 
mitras, or Maitrakas, who, as their name shows, had, in 
the course of time, become Indianised. Subsequently, as 
we shall see in the next period, they succeeded in form- 
ing the independent kingdom of Valabhi ; but in their 
first attempt they failed, for Skanda Gupta, soon after 
his accession, about 455 a.d., signally defeated them 
together with their barbarian allies"; and thus re- 
established the already tottering Gupta Empire. His 
success, however, was but temporary. He was soon 
afterwards confronted by far more formidable foemen. 
/These were the so-called White Huns, a people of 
/ Mongol race, who coming from Central Asia, overthrew, 
' about 465 A.D., the kingdom of the Little Kushans. 
Having done so, they penetrated into India, in irresistible 
hordes, as far as Eastern Malwa, where, as we know 
from two inscriptions of their leader Toramana, they 
established, about 480 a.d., their rule over the western 
^ortion of the Gupta Empire. About the same time, 
Oi eastern portion passed to Skanda Gupta'r half- 
oni-her, Pura Gupta, and soon afterwards, about 485 a.d., 


to the latter's son Narasimha Gupta. During the time 
of the latter's reign, Toramana was succeeded, about 

//^l"^ 510 A.D., by his son 

Coin of Vishnu Vardhana. 

Mihiragula. This ruler 
was noted for his inhu- 
man cruelties, and it was, 
no doubt, his cruel rule 
that provoked a revolt 
throughout his domi- 
nions. The revolt was 
headed by the Malava 

clans who rose under their Chief, Yasodharman. In a 

brilliant campaign, 

in which he was 

aided by the Vala- 

bhi governor Dro- 

nasimha, he utterly 

demoHshed, about 

525 A.D., the Hunic 

power. In that 

campaign, of which 

Kalidasa, in his 

Raghiroamsa, has 

left us a sketch 

under the figure of 

Rama's " world - 

conquest " ( dig-v'i- 

jaya), he carried 

his victorious arms 

to the banks of 

the Indus, and 

into Kashmir, and 

thus made himself 

master of the whole 

of the western por- 
tion of the Gupta 

Empire. But this succes did not content Yasodharman. 

He now turned his attention to the eastern portion of 


Vishnu Vardhana's Column of Victory. 



that empire. Here the Gupta dynast}', under Nara- 

simha's son Kumara Gupta II, had grown so feeble that 

Yasodharman, about 529 A.D., easily set it aside, and 

himself seizing the imperial power under the name of 

Vishnu Vardhana, founded the Malava Empire. This 

event he commemorated by the erection of two " Columns 

of Victory," with duplicate inscriptions, the remains of 

which exist to the present day at Mandasor. 

i-l- The reign of Vishnu Vardhana forms one of the 

most brilliant epochs in the history of 

Dvnasty^^^^^ the Indian people. He was equally 

great as a patron of learning, as an 

administrator, and as a soldier. He not only re-asserted 

the imperial authority throughout his wide dominions, 

but, as we known from 
still existing coins as well 
as from the Rajataran- 
ffhii, or Chronicles of 
Kashmir, he also extend- 
ed their limits by the 
conquest of the latter 
country. On the memor- 
ial pillars above referred 
to, he records the proud 
boast that he not only had defeated the Huns under 
Mihiragula, but that he also ruled a wider empire than 
ever the Guptas had done. On account of his successful 
liberation of the country from Hunic oppression, he lived 
ever after in the memory and traditions of the people 
as Vikramaditya, or the Sun of Valour (popularly Rajah 
Bikram) — as shown b}'- its new name of Vikrama era, by 
which the former Malava era is now known. After a 
long and prosperous reign of about 56 years he was 
succeeded, about 585 a.d., by his son, Siladitya, who 
was a man of a very different character. The unpatriotic 
reversal of his great father's anti-Hunic policy provoked 
against him a hostile combination of some of nis fore- 
most vassals. The confederates were headed bv Prabha- 

Kashmir Coins of Vikramaditya. 


kara Vardhana, the powerful chief of Thanesar, who was 
related by marriage to both the imperial houses of the 
Guptas and Malavas. The civil war which now ensued 
resulted, about 593 a.d., in the temporary dethronement 
of Siladitya. Though subsequently he succeeded, with 
the help of Pravarasena II, the Hunic king of Kashmir, 
in practically retrieving his position, he was defeated, in 
606 A D., by Rajya Vardhana, the elder son of Prabha- 
kara, in a great battle, which finally put an end to his 
rule. A son of his, Bhandi by name, was appointed by 
the victor to succeed him in the government of his 
home province Malwa. There Bhandi's family continued 
to reign till about 780 a.d., when, as will be related in 
the next Chapter, it was extinguished by the Guijara 
Chief Vatsaraja upon his conquest of Malwa. Rajya 
Vardhana, on entering Kanauj after the battle, was 
treacherously murdered by his enemies. His younger 
brother, the famous Harsha Vardhana, now assumed the 
direction of affairs, and fixing his capital at Kanauj, 
determined to re-unite the imperial 
power in his hands. In this enterprise Dynasty "^"^ 
he came into collision with Pulakesin II, 
the Chalukya king of the Deccan, by whom he was 
totally defeated, about 620 a.d. Conse- 
quent on his victory, Pulakesin assumed Division of the 

the imperial titles, and thus inaugurated Second Empire 
.u ^^ ,. . . c ^i c J t? into those of 

the great division 01 the Second Empire ^j^g North and 

into those of the South and the North, the south. 

In Northern India, on the other hand, 

Harsha Vardhana was altogether successful in establishing 


Autograph or King Harsha. 

his imperial authority, after which he got himself 


formally crowned about 612 a.d. With the ex- 
ception of the rebellion of Dhruvasena, king of Valabhi 
(or modern Gujarat) about 635 A.D., which Harsha 
successfully subdued, peace and prosperity henceforth 
ruled in his empire ; and that fact was signalised by him, 
in 644 A.D., by a great religious convocation which he 
held with much pomp in Prayaga, and which was attend- 
ed by all his vassal kings, and by the most celebrated 
doctors of the Brahmanic and Buddhist persuasions. 
Thus in spite of his partial failure in the South, Harsha 
Vardhana's forty years' rule over the Northern Empire 
forms another brilliant epoch in the history of India, 
and hence the year 606 a.d., which is the year 
of his accession, has become the starting point of 
the so-called Harsha era. Unfortunately the prosperity 
which Harsha had created did not outlast his reign. 
When he died at the end of 647, or beginning of 648 
A.D., the throne was usurped by one of his Brahman 
ministers. It so happened that just at this time an 
envoy — Wang Hiuen Tse by name— of the Chinese 
Emperor, was passing through Tibet and Nepal on his 
way to the Indian Emperor, Harslja. On his arrival, he 
found the Emperor dead, and himself most inhospitably 
received. His escort was massacred by the usurper, but 
he himself escaped to Nepal. This treachery led to a 
ioint Tibeto-Nepalese war of vengeance, in which the 
usurper was captured and sent to China. As to the 
Indian empire, the effect of the war was a complete 
anarchy, of which Dharasena IV, the king of Valabhi, 
at once took advantage, assuming the imperial titles and 
and thus inaugurating the permanent separation of the 
kingdom of Valabhi from the Northern Empire. 

We will now briefly pass in review the general 

condition ofthe people during this period. 

1 / the peotSe, ^^^ distinguishing feature is the revival of 

1/ ' Brahmanic religion and literature, and the 

rise of Hinduism through the blending of Brrhmanism 

with Buddhism. The latter as we have seen in the 


preceding period, had gradually changed into a popular 
religion, and had almost monopolised the popular 
favour. Brahmanism now made a determined effort to 
recover lost ground, by imitating and adopting Buddhis- 
tic beliefs, rites and practices, such as faith in numerous 
male and female deities, worship of their images, pilgrim- 
ages to their shrines, and so forth. In this effort it fully 
succeeded, and the result was a thorough transformation 
Brahmanism, and the upgrowth of that mixed 
civilization which is known as Hinduism. The revival 
,Brahmanism commenced with the rise of the Second 
Empire and the Gupta dynasty. Samudra Gupta revived 
the famous horse-sacrifice and struck a gold medal to 

commemorate it. On their 
coins the Gupta emperors 
describe themselves as 
parama-bhagavata , or fore- 
most devotees of Vishnu, 
■^^"r^-^^y or Krishna. In their time 
•iij^tv^ the practice arose of record- 
Medal of the Ilorse-sacrifice. j^g on COpper-platCS the 

grants of land made to Brahmans for the maintenance 
of temples and the service of images. Many of these 
medals, coins, and copper-plates still exist as witnesses 
to the religious condition of Northe rn India a t that 
time. Moreover, we have the account of an eye-wit- 
ness in the reports of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim 
Fahian. He traversed the whole of Northern India 
between 400 and 411 a.d., and found Brahman shrines 
and Buddhist temples flourishing side by side in all its 
large towns. Rather more than two centuries later, we 
have the account of another Buddhist pilgrim, Hiuen 
Tsang. In 644 a.d., he was present at the great 
religious convocation at Prayaga above-mentioned. 
He travelled over a large part of the peninsula, and 
though he everywhere found many of the finest 
Buddhist temples already in a ruined state, he nowhere 
indicates the progress of any violent or w^arlike conflict 


between Brahmanism and Buddhism. This of course, 
does not exclude the occasional occurrence of riots 
between the two sects, but it shows that Buddhism was 
not, as has sometimes been erroneously supposed, 
stamped out by Brahmanist persecution, but that its 
disappearance was the natural result of a gradual and 
peaceful assimilation of the two systems so as to 
produce the new system of Hinduism. 

Coincident with the revival of the Brahmanic 
religion was the revival of Sanskrit Lan- 
The Revival of guage and Literature. From the time 
ua|^"aiff "' ' ^^ ^^^ Guptas we find Sanskrit gradually 
terature. , displacing the Prakrits, or vernaculars, in 
' all records, public and private, and in 
every branch pf literature, and this not only among the 
Brahmanists, but also among the Buddhists and Jains. 
From this time dates the religious and social literature 
of the new Brahmanism, the eighteen Piiratias, or cyclo- 
paidias of knowledge, the metrical Dhartna Shastras, or 
law books, and the numerous original Tantras, or books 
of religious formularies. In these works learned Brah- 
mans sought to popularise the beliefs and practices of 
the rising Hinduism. The Vayii Pnraiia, the earliest 
of them, was probably compiled about 320 A.D., under 
Chandra Gupta I. About that time begins the period 
of what is called_the j Classical ' Sanskrit Tit.e rature. It 
enjoyed two particularly brilliant epochs — one during 
the reign of Vishnu Vardhana ( Vikramaditya) of Malwa 
about 529-585 A.D., and the other during the reign of 
Harsha Vardhana of Kanauj about 612-647 a.d. Both 
these emperors are celebrated as patrons of learning 
and learned men. Harsha, indeed, is himself said to 
have been a poet, and to be the author of the romantic 
drama Rabiavali, or the Pearl-Necklace, which reflects 
the court and harem life of his age. Vikramaditya's 
court is said to have been adorned by ' Nine Gems,' or 
men of great learning. The following famous writers, 
certainly, belonged to his age : Varaha Mihira, who 


wrote the Brihat Satnhita, a sort of cyclopaedia of all 
knowledge ; the great logician Dinnaga ; and the three 
poets, Bharavi, the author of the epic poem Kiratar- 
juniya ; Subandhu, the author of the romance Vasava- 
datta ; and above all Kalidasa, who probably lived at 
the court of Vishnu Vardhana. The last is the greatest 
of India's poets. Some of his best works are the roman- 
tic drama Sakiintala, or the love story of King Dushyanta 
and the forest maiden Sakuntala ; the epic poem Raghu- 
vatnsa, or the life of Rama and the history of his race ; 
and the lyric poem Meghaduta, or the Cloud Messenger, 
being an exile's message sent by a cloud to his wife 
dwelling far away. The age of Harsha was no less 
distinguished by its circle of cultured men. We have 
here the two grammarians, Vamana and Jayaditya of 
Kasi, or Benares, who wrote the Kasikavriti, the cele- 
brated commentary on Panini's Grammar ; the great 
astronomer Brahmagupta ; and the two poets Bana and 
Dandin, the authors respectively of the romance Kadatn- 
bari and the story book Dasa Kumara Charita, or the 
Adventures of the Ten Princes. But the most eminent 
among them was Bhartrihari, who was equally great as 
grammarian, philosopher and poet. Besides other works 
he wrote the Bhattikavya, in which he illustrates the 
rules of Sanskrit grammar by means of an epic poem on 
Rama, and the Niti Sataka, or one Hundred Verses on 
Conduct, in which he inculcates maxims for the guidance 
of daily life. 

Another striking feature of this period is the culti- 
vati on of t he Art of Painting. The most 
conspicuous example of it is presented Art of Painting, 
by the celebrated fresco paintings on the 
walls of some of the cave temples of Ajanta. These 
paintings belong to the more peculiarly Indian school 
of art, and some of them probably go back to the pre- 
ceding period. They represent, with uncommon beauty 
and grate, incidents from the life of Buddha, as well as 
notable events in the pohtical history of India. To the 


latter belongs, e.g., the picture whi6h shows the recep- 
tion, in 625 A.D., of the ambassadors of the Persian king 
Khusru II, by the Southern Emperor Pulakesin 11. 

The Later Hindu Period : 

The Rajput States, The Qurjara Empire, and the 
Early Mubammadan Invasions. 

About 650 — 1200 A.D. 

IN the preceding period we have seen how the Second 
Indian Empire, founded by the Guptas, became 
divided into the two empires of the South 
and the North. At the end of that period Remapks!°^^ 
we saw the beginning of the disrup- 
tion of the Northern Empire by the loss of the kingdom 
of Valabhi. In the present period we shall see how the 
Northern Empire steadily went on disintegrating into a 
number of still smaller kingdoms or principalities. The 
cause of this general break-up was the rise to political 
power of the Jjajput clan gs. These clans appear to have 
been the natural outcome of the settlement in India of 
the vigorous foreign ract s of Huns and Gurjaras, and of 
their subsequent blending with the martial and ruling 
native clans of India. With their youthful vigour these 
newly formed Rajput clans pushed themselves into the 
political forefront, swept away the old effete empire, 
and replaced it by a large number of smaller kingdoms 
and principalities, which, for a short time, were consoli- 
dated into the Gurjara Empire. The mischief of this new 
development, however, was that the mutual rivalries and 
hostilities, engendered between the numerous Rajput 
dynasties, rendered it impossible for them to oppose a 
united front to the great conqueror of India, Muhammad 
of Ghor, at the turn of the 12th century. 

At the beginning of this period the Northern Empire 
was shcjrn of its westernmost provin- ^he Later Gupta 
ces, that is, of Gujarat, and also, as we Dynasty, and the 


shall see presently, of Sindh and the 
Disruption of the Punjab. It embraced more or less 
Noptliern Empire securely the rest of India north of the 
Narbada, comprising Hindustan in its 
widest sense, and Bengal. In the reduced empire, the 
anarchy following the death of Harsha Vardhana appears 
to have resulted in the ascendancy of a collateral branch 
of the imperial Gupta dynasty. Its founder was Krishna 
Gupta, who, under his imperial relatives, held a subordi- 
nate position in Malwa. It was Aditya Sena, the seventh 
in descent, who about 675 A.D., assumed the imperial 
titles,* and who, for that reason, is traditionally known 
in Bengal as Adisur, its first king. His successors con- 
tinued to hold them for about a century longer. The last, 
whose name is actually known by an inscription, was 
Jivita Gupta, who reigned about 720 A.D., but as we 
know from the coins of Jaya Gupta and Hari Gupta, 
the dynasty must have continued for at least two 
generations after him down to about 785 a.d. But its 
rule was now limited to the eastern portion of the 
empire, viz., Bihar and Bengal, where it was finally 
displaced by the Pala dynasty. 

The course of events that led to the break-up of the 
Later Gupta empire is not exactly 
of Kanaut^"^ known. But we know from a contem- 
porary Jain record that in 783 a.d. there 
existed two large kingdoms, one with its capital at 
Kanauj, the other at Ujain, their territories being 
divided, roughly speaking, by the Jumna. The former 
kingdom, which comprised the north-western portion of 
what had been the empire of Harsha Vardhana, and 
contained its capital Kanauj, enjoyed for that reason the 

* These were Parayna-bliattaraka, Maharajdhiraja and 
Paramesvara, which are usually translated "the Most-Worship- 
ful, the Great King of Kings, and the Supreme Lord." The 
assumption of these titles is a useful guide in iracing the 
vicissitudes of the empire. 


great prestige of paramount empire, and hence became 
the pivot of all subsequent political movements up to 
the time of the Muhammedan conquest, which will be 
related in the following Chapter. In this northern king- 
dom we find a king Yasovarman reigning in 731 a.d., 
in which year he sent an embassy to China. He was 
the patron of the two poets, Bhavabhuti and Vakpatiraja, 
the latter of whom described the king's military exploits 
in the epic poem Gaudavaha, or conquest of Bengal. 
These exploits resulted in a war with Kashmir, which 
led to his utter discomfiture by the Kashmir king 
Lahtaditya Muktapida, and to the ultimate extinction of 
his dynasty by Lalitaditya's grandson Jayapida, about 
780 A.D. A new dynasty appears now to have been 
founded by Indrayudha, who is known to have been 
reigning in 'jii'i, a.d. This king got involved in an 
unsuccessful war with his eastern neighbour Dharmapala, 
the ambitious ruler of the above-mentioned kingdom of 
Bihar and Bengal. As a result of the war his brother 
Chakrayudha was raised to the throne under the 
suzerainty of the victor. But Chakrayudha soon met 
with a similar fate. He was defeated, about 814 a.d., 
in a war with his southern neighbour Nagabhata, the 
Gurjara ruler of Malwa and Rajputana. The latter, 
however, as we shall see presently, was himself defeated 
by the Rashtrakuta Emperor, Govinda III ; and there- 
upon Vajrayudha succeeded to the throne of Kanauj. 
It was he, probably, under whom the northern kingdom 
of Kanauj was annexed to the southern kingdom of 
Ujain, which comprised the south-western portion of 
what had been the Empire of Harsha Vardhana. 

The first ruler of the southern kingdom was 
Vatsaraja, the Chief of the Gurjara tribe. This tribe 
appears to have come into India in con- . 

junction with the Huns. It settled partly Empire!^"^^^^ 
in the Punjab, a portion of which is still 
known alfter it by the name of Gujarat and Gujranwala, 
and partly in Rajputana, which in early times was called 


also Gujarat. From Rajputana, where their original 
capita] was in Bhinmal, the Gurjaras spread eastwards 
into Malwa, where Vatsaraja is known to have been 
reigning in Ujain in 783 a.d. They even temporarily 
threatened the Pala kingdom of Bihar and Bengal, 
whose king Gopala was defeated by Vatsaraja, about 
790 A.D But Dhruva, the Rashtrakuta Emperor of the 
Southern Empire, interfered, and defeating Vatsaraja 
drove him back into Rajputana. Not long afterwards, 
the Gurjaras renewed their eastward advance under 
Vatsaraja's son, Nagabhata. This time, they penetrated 
to Kanauj, whose king Chakrayudha, as stated above, 
was conquered by them; but Dhruva's son, Govinda III, 
again interfered, and defeating Nagabhata about 814 
A.D., drove him back once again into Rajputana. For 
the third time, the Gujaras advanced under Nagabhata's 
son, Ramabhadra (about 820-842 a.d.) This time the 
country was permanently conquered as far as the Jumna, 
and Ramabhadra assumed the Imperial ritles. His son 
Bhoja I (about 842-885 A.D.) resumed the Gurjara 
advance across the Jumna, and finally overthrowing 
and annexing the northern kingdom about 843 a.d., 
transferred his capital from Ujain to Kanauj. Under him 
the Gurjara empire reached its widest extent, embracing 
the whole of Hindustan in its widest sense. It was 
bordered in the East by the Pala kingdom of Bihar and 
Bengal, in the South by the Southern Empire of the 
Rashtrakutas and in the West by the Muhammadan 
kingdoms on the Indus. Bhoja's son, Mahendrapala 
(about 885-910 A.D.j maintained the empire practically 
unimpaired ; but after him it began to decline rapidly. In 
the time of his son Bhoja H, about 9 1 3 a.d., Yasovarman, 
the Chief of the Chandel Rajputs, set himself up in 
Bundelkhand as an independent ruler with imperial 
titles. And Bhoja II's half-brother, Mahipala, about 
916 A.D., nearly lost his empire in a disastrous war with 
his southern neighbour, Indra III, the Rashtrakuta ruler 
of the Southern Empire. Though he soon afterwards 

Ch. VIIL] the later hindu period. 71 

recovered the larger portion of his empire, he had now 
permanently lost the provinces of Malwa and Rajputana 
to the Chiefs of the Parmar and Chohan Rajputs res- 
pectively, the former of whom assumed the imperial 
titles. Under Mahipala's son Vijayapala, who about 
970 A.D. lost the Gwalior province to the Kachhwaha 
Rajputs, the empire became practically reduced to the 
territory north of the Jumna with the capital at Kanauj, 
In this weak condition it was unable to offer any effec- 
tive resistance to the now commencing encroachments 
of the Sultans of Ghazni. About 991 a.d., Rajyapala, 
the son of Vijayapala, was, together with his ally, king 
Jayapala of the Punjab, disastrously defeated by Sultan 
Sabuk Tigin, near the Khurram Valley. Later on, he 
was even raided by the famous Sultan Mahmud, who 
captured and sacked Kanauj in 10 19 a.d. In the follow- 
ing year, having lost his life in a war with his rival, the 
Chandel king Ganda, he was succeeded by his son 
Trilochanapala. With him the once powerful Gurjara 
dynasty disappears into obscurity till 1097 ^-D., when 
we find Chandra Deva, the Chief of the Gaharwar 
Rajputs, in possession of Kanauj. 

The principality of Ajmir had always formed a part 
of the western frontier of the Northern 

Empire. Ithad been held bv the Chief l^^.^^J'Jl^^l,^.^ 
r 1 /^i 1 T-. • . r ii i- r Ajmir and Delhi, 
of the Chohan Rajputs from the tmie of 

the rise of the Gurjara power, about 780 A.D. Their 
dynasty comprised a very long line of princes, who all 
maintained a high reputation as powerful lords of the 
Western Marches, and from about 1000 A.D., under 
Simharaja, held a practically independent position. 
The most conspicuous among them was Vigraharaja, 
known as Bisal Deo, who, as we know from certain in- 
scriptions on the famous Iron Pillar (now at Delhi;, 
about 1 1 64 A.D. , considerably extended his dominions 
southwards and northwards. He was great as a poet 
as also as a warrior. A drama, written by him in 11 53 
A.D., and named Harakali Nataka, has been found in 


Ajmir, incised on large marble slabs. His principal 
acquisition was the territory of the Tomara Chiefs, 
whose capital Delhi had been founded in 993 a.d , and 
fortified in the eleventh century b}^ Ananga Pala by the 
erection of the so-called Lalkot, or Red Fort. The last 
of the Chohans was Prithviraja, the son of Vigraharaja's 
younger brother Someswara. This is the celebrated 
Prithiraj, or Rai Pithora, whose defeat near Thanesar, in 
1192 A.D., at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, has be- 
come famous as marking the epoch of the Muhammadan 
conquest of India. 

The Gaharwar dynasty, which was founded by 
Chandra Deva about 1090 A.D., ruled 
of Kanauj^^^^ ^^^^ greatly reduced kingdom of Kanauj 
down to the time of the Muhammadan 
conquest. Its kings still laid claim to the imperial titles, 
although the kingdom comprised no more than the 
country lying, roughly speaking, between Etawa and 
Benares, north of the Ganges. The last of the line was 
Jaya Chandra. With him the last remnant of the old 
Northern Empire disappeared in 1193 a.d., when it was 
annexed to the Muhammadan Empire of Muhammad 

We have stated that Yasovarman, the Chandel 
chief of Bundelkhand, with his capital 
of ^Mahaba^^^ ^^ Mahoba, had assumed independence 
about 913 A.D., and had set himself up 
as a rival to the Gurjara Emperor. In consequence 
his dynasty found itself involved in perpetual wars 
with one or other of his neighbours who also claimed 
the imperial crown. These were, in the north, the 
Gurjaras and Gaharwars of Kanauj, in the south-west, 
the Parmars of Malwa, and in the south, the Kalachuris 
of Chedi. The pretensions of the Chandel dynasty 
were finally extinguished by Qutbuddin Aibak, who, 
under Muhammad Ghori's orders, reduced it to subjec- 
tion in 1193 A.D. 

At the time when the Gurjara empire began todechne, 



The Farm EPS 
of Malwa. 






Deccan Coin of Ilarsha Deva. 

about 916 A.D,, Mahva fell to the share 
of the Parmar clan of Rajputs. Their 
chief, Krishnaraja, assumed the imperial 
titles, and founded the Parmar dynasty. The pretensions 
to empire, as usual, involved the dynast} in almost per- 
petual warfare with its neighbours. The kingdom attained 
its widest extent under Harsha Deva Siyaka, the third 
in descent, who, as we know from inscriptions and coins, 
about 972 A.D., made an expedition into the Southern 

empire, and plundered the 
wealth of Malkher, the capital 
of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. 
But the best-known prince of 
the dynasty is Bhoja, the cele- 
brated patron of learning, 
whose long reign, from about 
loio to 1055 A.D., forms the most brilliant epoch in 
this period of Indian history. Though repeatedly the 
victim of Muhammadan raids, the dynasty preserved 
its independence down to the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, when its country was annexed to 
the Muhammadan Empire by Muhammad I, of the 
Khalji dynast}'. 

It will be remembered that the Later Gupta dynasty 
continued to rule in Bihar and Bengal down to about 
785 A.D. About that time it appears to have been over- 
turned by a local chief of Bihar called Gopala, who 
resided at Mungir (Monghyr). He as- 
sumed the imperial titles, and his ambi- 
tion appears to have been to conquer 
also the kmgdom of Kanauj for the sake 
of the prestige of Empire attaching to it. The same 
ambition, as we have seen, incited also the Gurjara Chief 
Vatsaraja to his advance from the West. The two rivals, 
from the East and West, met in battle, and Gopala was 
defeated, about 790 a.d. His project was more 
successAilly resumed by his son Dharmapala, (about 810- 
875 A.U.). He conquered Kanauj, about 810 A.D., but 

The Palas of 
Bihar and 




Map illiisirat.rno Chapters IV to!X 


replacing the conquered king Indrayudha by his own 
nominee Chakrayudha, he contented himself with the 
suzerain power, which, as known from a land grant of his, 
he retained till about 843 A.D., when, as previously 
stated, the Kanauj kingdom passed into the possession 
of the Gurjara emperor, Bhoja I. Dharmapala was 
followed by a very long line of kings, the ninth of whom, 
Mahipala, is known to have been on the throne in 1026 
A.D. It was shortly after his time that Bengal became 
independent under the Senas. The whole Pala dynasty 
comprised some twenty members. It seems to have 
never relinquished its allegiance to Buddhism ; and it was 
owing to its patronage that Bihar remained the last 
refuge of that Faith in Northern India up to the very 
time of the Muhammadan conquest. The case was differ- 
ent with the Bengal portion of its territory, which was 
lost to Buddhism in the latter half of the nth century. 
The reason appears to have been that, at the time, Bengal 
was administered by governors who belonged to the 
zealously brahmanic family of the Senas. 
One of these, Vijaya Sena, about 1095 of ^Be^^ffal^ 

A.D., made himself independent of the 
Pala sovereigns ; and his grandson, Lakshmana Sena, 
ousted them even from Tirhut or North Bihar. This 
was in 11 19 a.d., and hence that year has become the 
epoch of the so-called Lakshmaniya era which is spe- 
cially current in Tirhut. Lakshmana Sena had a very 
long reign ; and he was still on the throne in 1193 A.D., 
when Bihar and Bengal were conquered by Muhammad-i- 
Bakhtiyar, one of Muhammad Ghori's generals. It was 
thus that the rule of the Pala and the Sena dynasties 
was extinguished at the same time. 

It was shown at the end of the preceding period, 
how, at the time of the anarchy consequent on 

Harsha Vardhana's death, the king- „, „. , „ 

J r A- 1 1 I ] /- • ^ The Kingdom of 

dom or v alabhi, or modern Gujarat, Gujarat under 

was dv*finitely separated from the the Valabhis and 

Northern Enipire by Dharasena IV. ^^^ Chalukyas. 


of the Valabhi dynasty. This dynasty was so called, 
because it had its capital at Valabhi, the modern Wala 
in Kathiawad. It was founded, about 495 A.D., by 
Bhatarka, the Chief of the Mihira, or Mair clan, probably 
a Turki clan which had come in with the Sakas, but had 
in the course of time become indianised. Bhatarka had 
been appointed Senapati or Military Governor, by the 
Hunic conqueror Toramana, in the time of the latter's 
domination over the western portion of the Gupta empire. 
His grandson, Dronasimha, as previously related, was 
promoted to be Maharaja by the emperor, Vishnu Vard- 
hana as a reward for his aid in delivering India from the 
cruel domination of Mihiragula ; and Dharasena IV, the 
twelfth in descent, as has also been stated, assumed the 
imperial titles in 645 a.d. His successors continued to 
hold that dignity till about 770 a.d,, when the Valabhi 
dynasty became extinct with Siladitya VI, the nine- 
teenth in descent. The exact cause is not known, but 
it was probably effected by an Arab expedition from 
Sindh. On the retirement of the Arabs, the throne was 
seized by a Chavada chief, who made his capital at 
Anhilvad, or Patan. His dynasty, under the suzerainty 
of the Gurjara emperors, reigned down to about 970 
A.D., when it was supplanted by Mularaja I, the Chief 
of the Solanki, or Chalukya, Rajputs. These Rajputs 
appear to have been a branch of the Gurjara tribe ; for 
they gave to the country into vvhich they migrated the 
name of Gujarat by which it is now known. Mularaja's 
father is said to have come originally from the kingdom 
of Kanauj, where his ancestors, for several generations, 
had held the Katak, or fort of Kalyana. It is not 
impossible that they were a collateral branch of the 
Gurjara imperial dynasty. Be that as it may, Mularaja's 
father migrated to Patan, and married the daughter of 
the last Chavada king. On the latter's death, Mularaja 
seized the throne. His Solanki dynasty continued to 
rule Gujarat with the imperial titles down to the very 
end of the thirteenth century, when their country was 

Ch. VIIL] the later hindu period. 'n 

annexed to the Muhammadan Empire by Muhammad I 
of the Khalji dynasty. 

It remains to describe the fortunes of Sindh and the 
Punjab — originally also provinces of 
what was once the great Northern Em- The Southern 
pire— and their conquest by the Muham- fh^^eaHy"cha- 
madans. But before doing so, it will be lukyas. 
convenient briefly to relate the history 
of the political divisions of South India, namely, the 
Southern Empire and the kingdoms of the Pallavas, 
Cholas, and Pandyas, and of the Kalachuris of Chedi. 
We have seen that the Southern Empire was founded 
about 620 A.D., by Pulakesin II, of the Chalukya dynasty. 
The Chalukyas were a Rajput clan whose original seat 
was in the north. Thence for some reason, no longer 
known, they had migrated south about 550 A.D., under 
their chief, Pulakesin I, who finally carved out for 
himself a small kingdom with its capital at Badami. 
His grandson Pulakesin II (about 609 — 642 A.D.), the 
sixth of the dynasty, vigorously set himself to extend 
the kingdom in all directions. He gradually brought 
into more or less effective subjection the whole of 
Southern India, from sea to sea, and from the Vindhyas 
to Cape Comorin. It was thus that he came into 
conflict with the Northern Emperor, Harsha Vardhana, 
who aspired to the paramountcy of the whole of India. 
In a great battle, fought in Malwa, about 620 a.d., 
Pulakesin II succeeded in inflicting a decisive defeat on 
Harsha Vardhana, and compelling the acknowledgment 
of the independency of the Southern Empire. A curious 
proof of this achievement is afforded to us by the 
Ajanta picture, previously referred to, of the compli- 
mentary embassy from the Persian king, Khusru II. 
The weak point, however, in Pulakesin's empire was 
his claim to suzerainty over the Pallava kings, which 
the latter persistently disputed. By way of safeguard, 
Pulakesirt appointed, about 615 a.d., his brother Vishnu 
Vardhana, to the practically independent rule of the 


eastern province of Vengi, reserving for himself the 
larger western portion of the empire, whence his des- 
cendants are known as the Western 
Chalukvas^-^^e" Chalukya dynasty. The measure, how- 
615-753 A.b. ' ever, did not prove sufficiently effective ;. 
for at the end of his reign, about 642 
A.D., he suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the 
Pallava king Narasimha Varman, who captured and 
destroyed Badami. His successors, indeed, were able 
to retrieve the disaster and maintain their supremacy ;. 
and Vikramaditya II, the fourth in descent from 
Pulakesin II, about 740 A.D., even succeeded in shat- 
tering the Pallava power. Nevertheless the chronic 
trouble with the Pallavas so weakened the Chalukya 
power that, about 753 a.d., the rule of 
kutas ?e^^753- Kirtivarman II, the last of the dynasty, 
973 A.D." was overthrown by his rebellious feuda- 

tory Dantidurga, who thus became 
the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. After a 
time that dynasty threw out several branches reigning 
in different parts of the country, the capital of the 
paramount line being at Malkher. It was, as has been 
already indicated, in a chronic state of conflict with 
its northern neighbour, the Gurjara dynasty, several 
members of which were defeated, respectively, by 
Dhruva, the third after Dantidurga, about 790 a.d., by 
Dhruva's son Govinda III, about 814 a.d., and by 
Indraraja III, about 916 a.d. But its greatest power 
the Rashtrakuta dynasty enjoyed during the long reign 
of Govinda Ill's son, Amoghavarsha, (815-877 a.d.).. 
He not only maintained his suzerainty over the Gangas 
of Talakad (Mysore) and the Pallavas of Kanchipurand 
apparently the Cholas and Pandyas of the extreme 
south, but also held in subjection the Eastern Chalukyas 
of Vengi ; so that, at this time, the Rashtrakuta 
Empire had practically the same extent as that of the 
Early Chalukyas under Pulakesin II. After him, 
however, the Rashtrakuta power gradually declined, till,. 


about 973 a.d., Tailapa II, a descendant of the Early 
Chalukyas, and related by marriage to the Rashtrakutas, 
succeeded with the help of the Northern 
Yadava feudatories of Devagiri, in over- The Later West- 
throwing Kakka II, the last of the ef ^TsS A^d! 
Rashtrakutas. He thus founded the 
Later Western Chalukya dynasty, which is known also 
as the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The strongest member 
of this dynasty was Somesvara I (1040-1069), but its 
hold on the empire, even in its palmiest days, was 
imperfect ; and after Somesvara I it grew still more 
feeble. This was owing to the rise of the Cholas of 
Kanchipur and Tanjore, and of the Hoysalas of 
Dvarasamudra, the present Halobid. But it was the 
latter that more directly caused the extinction of the 
Chalukya rule. The Hoysalas held Northern Mysore 
as feudatories of the Chalukyas. They rose to power, 
by the conquest of their fellow-feudato- 
ries, the Western Gangas of Talakad J. io48°1311 A.!)! 
in southern Mysore. In 1173 a.d., 
their chief, Ballala II, assumed independence, and 
even proceeded to contest with his suzerain for the 
possession of the imperial power. Though he succeeded, 
about 1 1 90 A.D., in overturning Somesvara IV, 
the last of the Chalukya dynasty, he did not attain 
his object. For Bhillama, the Yadava Chief of Devagiri 
took advantage of the opportunity to seize the imperial 
power him.self. Ballala for a time continued the 
contest tor that power with the Yadava Emperors. 
But it ended, about 12 10 a.d., with his signal defeat by 
Singhana, the grandson of Bhillama. This victory 
finally disposed of the pretensions of the Hoysalas, 
though they continued to reign as feudatories down 
to the Muhammadan conquest in 131 1 a.d. The 
Yadavas were a Rajput clan who are said to 
have migrated, about 825 A.D., from ^^^ Yadava 
MathurA into the Deccan to their new Dynasty : e. 
seats about Devagiri. Here, known as 1210-1318 A.D. 


the Early Yadavas, they lived as the trusty feudatories 
of the Chalukya and Rashtrakuta dynasties down to the 
end of the twelfth century, when, under the name of the 
Later Yadava dynasty, they rose, about 1 190 a.d., under 
Bhillama to supreme power. His grandson Singhana 
(1210-1247 A.D.^ and the latter's grandson Krishna 
(1247-1260) were the two most powerful members of 
the dynasty. They appear to have succeeded in re- 
uniting, for the third time, what were the original 
territories of the Southern Empire of Pulakesin 11. 
Their descendants reigned down to 1307 a.d., when, as 
we shall see in the next period, the reigning Yadava 
prince, Ramadeva, was compelled by Malik Kafur to 
submit to the Muhammadan Empire. Nominally the 
dynasty continued to reign till 13 18 a.d., when Hara 
Pala, the last of the Yadavas, was cruelly slain by the 
emperor, Mubarak Shah, against whom he had rebelled. 
The Pallavas or Pah lavas, who have been referred 

to repeatedly in the preceding account 
King-dom^^^ ^^ events, appear to have been originally 

a Parthian tribe, who came into India 
in the time of the Indo-Parthian domination, in the 2nd 
century A.D. Under the pressure of the subsequent 
Kushana invasion they seem to have wandered into 
Southern India, where they settled on the south-east 
coast, within the country of the Andhras and Cholas, 
betw^een the Godavery and Kaveri rivers, with 
capitals at Vengi and Kanchipur (Conjeveram). In the 
meantime, as their names show, they had become 
thoroughly indianised, and their foreign Pathian origin 
was forgotten. We obtain the first glimpse of their 
South-Indian principality, about 430 A.D., when their 
Chiefs Vishnugupta in Kanchipur and Hastivarman in 
Vengi, were subjected by Samudra Gupta. On the 
decline of the Gupta Empire, they formed an independent 
kingdom, which now seems to have extended across 
South India to the west coast. From the 7th to the 9th 
century, their kings persistently, though ineffectually, 


disputed the supremacy of the Early Chalukya and 
Rashtrakuta Emperors of the Southern Empire. It 
was their king, Mahendravarman II, who, about 6io 
A.D., was subjected by Pulakesin II, the Early Chalukya. 
But Narasimhavarman, about 642 a.d., again asserted 
his independence by the defeat of Pulakesin II, and the 
capture of his capital Badami. His reign (about 640- 
655 a.d.) marks the height of the Pallava power, which 
included the suzerainty over the kings of the Cholas 
and Pandyas. After him it again declined, till through 
the successive victories of the Early Chalukya Vikrama- 
ditya II, about 740 A.D., over Nandivarman, and of the 
Rashtrakuta Govinda III, about 803 a.d., over Dantiga, 
it became so shattered, that, about 900 a.d , under 
Aparajita, it was entirely overthrown by the Chola king 
Aditya, who annexed the Pallava territories to his own 

About 615 A.D., as has been mentioned, Vishnu 
Vardhana, the younger brother of 
Pulakesin II, had become the indepen- The Eastern Cha- 
dent sovereign of the eastern portion ^ b30-l07(f A^dT ' 
of the Southern Empire. His king- 
dom comprised the country lying along the lower courses 
of the Godavery and Kistna rivers, and had Vengi for its 
capital. There his descendants, known as the Eastern 
Chalukya dynasty, reigned without any conspicuous 
influence on the course of the history of the Empire, 
down to 1070 A.D., when their kingdom became merged 
into that of the Cholas. About the early Chola kingdom 
very little is known. Its territory was 
on the south-eastern coast, north and Jhe Chola King- 
south of Madras. It was known al- j^q 
ready to the Sanskrit Grammarian 
Kaiyayana in the fourth century B.C. As we have seen, 
it formed no part of Asoka's Empire in the third century 
B.C., nor was it included in the conquests of Samundra- 
gupta, at/out 340 A.D. At the latter date it can have 
been but a small kingdom. It was so still at the time 


when it was reported on by the Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen 
Tsang, about 640 a.d., when it was tributary to the 
Pallava kings ; and it remained so for about two centuries 
longer, until it came under the rule of a new dynasty. 
The second of this dynasty, Aditya II, as previously 
stated, about 900 A.D., shook off the Pallava supremacy. 
Rajaraja I, the fourth in descent from Aditya, but the 
loth of the dynasty, by the conquest of the Pallava 
and Pandya territories, about 995 a.d., succeeded in 
founding a great rival Chola kingdom. This kingdom 
reached the height of its power and extension in the 
reign of his son, Rajendra I (1018-1042 a.d ). This king 
conquered the Burmese kingdom of Pegu in 1025-1027 
A.D., made war with the Later Chalukyas of Kalyani, 
and even carried his raids as far north as the banks of 
the Ganges, in commemoration of which latter achieve- 
ment he built a new capital at Gangapuri. The kingdom 
continued flourishing for some time. In the long reign 
of Rajendra II (1070-1118 A.D.), who was a grandson 
of the Eastern Chalukya king Vimaladitya by the latter's 
maniage with a daughter of Rajaraja, the Eastern 
Chalukya territory was united with the original kingdom 
of the Cholas. After Rajendra II the Chola power 
gradually declined. About 1 1 50 a.d. it lost the tributary 
kingdom of the Pandyas, and, as a result of the expedi- 
tion of Malik Kafur and Malik Khusru to the Malabar 
coast, in 131 1 and 1319 a.d., it sank thenceforth into 
the position of a petty principality. 

Respecting the Pandya kingdom in the earliest days 
our information is very meagre. It 
K?nffdon?^^^ occupied the southernmost portion of 
the Indian peninsula, south of the Vellaru 
river, w^ith Madura as its capital. Of its existence as 
early as the fourth century B.C. we know both from Katya- 
yana's grammatical notes and from the reports of Megas- 
thenes. Its existence, in the third century B.C., is shown 
by the Edicts of Asoka. According to Strabo a'nd Pliny, 
who lived in the first and second centuries A.D., it was a 


flourishing and enterprising kingdom in those days, 
possessing a regular maritime trade with the West, and a 
high degree of culture. Later on, it seems to have 
declined politically ; for at the time of Hiuen Tsang's 
visit to Southern India, about 640 a.d., it appears to 
have been under the suzerainty of the Pallava kings of 
Kanchipur ; and still later, after the fall of the Pallava 
power, from about 994 A.D., it was tributary to the Chola 
kingdom. About 1250 a.d. it appears to have regained 
some degree of independence under a king named 
Sundara ; but soon afterwards, in 131 1 a.d., it shared in 
the general eclipse of the South Indian states, consequent 
on Mahk Kafur's military expeditions. 

The kingdom of Chedi was situated in the country 
south of the Narbada, corresponding to 
modern Berar and the Central Provinces. Jf cSi °^ 
Of the early history of this country we 
have very little information. It must have been included 
in the Maurya and Sunga Empires. Afterwards it 
belonged to the great kingdom of the Andhras. What 
happened to it at the time of the break-up of that king- 
dom, in the middle of the third century a.d., we do not 
exactly know. It is only towards the end of the ninth 
century a.d., that we again obtain a glimpse of it. At 
that time we find that the so-called Kalachuri era was 
current in the Chedi country ; and as that era, as 
previously observed, took its rise in the Northern 
Konkan province at the time of the extinction of the 
Andhra dynasty, in 249 a.d., some close connection 
appears to have prevailed in the intermediate period 
between the northern Konkan and the neighbouring 
Chedi country. Anyhow, in the ninth century we find the 
latter country in the possession of the Haihaya Rajputs, 
whose Chief, Kokalla, having married his daughter to 
Krishna II of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of the Southern 
Empire, established, about 875 a.d., an independent 
kingdonl and founded the Kalachuri dynasty. The two 
most powerful members of this dynasty were Gangeya- 



deva and Karnadeva, who between them must have 
reigned for about a century (1015-1040 and 1040-1115 
A.D.). This was the period of the disruption of the 
Gurjara empire ; and those two monarchs, assuming the 
imperial titles, entered into warlike competition with 
their neighbours for the paramount power hitherto 
wielded by Kanauj. Gangeyadeva, as we know from 
Alberuni, reigned about 1030 a.d., and the influence 
which his rule exercised may be seen from the fact that 
a new type of coin which he introduced was thereafter 
^.^^ adopted bv his northern 

i#r!?'^?:^i ,^^1^^ neighbours, the Chandel 
\^ kings of Mahoba, and even 

the Gurjara kings of Kanauj. 
It was about this time that 
the sway of the Kalachuris 

Gold coin of Gangeyadeva. was extended southwards 

over Telingana, which gave 
them one of their titles, "Lords of Trikalinga." Sub- 
sequently, in the twelfth century, they divided into two 
branches reigning in the easLern and western portions of 
the country, called Dahala and Mahakosala, with 
Ratanpur and Tewar (close to Jabalpur) as their 
respective capitals. Jajalla I and Yasahkarna, the 
son of Karnadeva, are known, from their inscriptions, 
to have been reigning in the East and West, in 1114 
and 1120 respectively. At the same time, about 
1 1 50 A.D., the southern portion, Telingana, assumed 

independence under its own Kakatya 
The Kakatiyas dynasty, who made their captial at 
nbZfiidAsi:^' Warangal. About 12 10 A.D., the whole 

territory became subject once more 
to the Southern Empire under the Yadava Singhana. 
Ultimately, in the first quarter of the fourteenth century, 
sharing the fate of that empire, it passed into the 
povver of the Muhammadan Empire under the Khalji 

We will now turn to the history of Sindh and the 


Punjab. We have learned already that 
these provinces had been lost to the TheKing-domof 
Northern Empire at the openhig of the IV^alf CoSque?t 
present period. The early history of 
Sindh is not yet fully known. But it w^ould seem that 
at the time of the Hunic invasion, about 515 a.d., the 
famous Mihiragula of the Jabula clan, whom the Greeks 
knew as Gollas, established his rule over the country. 
His hinduized descendants, known as the Raya dynasty, 
are said to have reigned down to 631 a.d. In that year 
Chach, their Brahman minister, usurped the throne ; but 
his Brahman dynasty was very short-lived. Under 
Dahir, a son of Chach, it was extinguished by the Arab 
conquest of Sindh in 712 a.d. In that year Muhammad- 
i-Qasim was sent by Hajjaj, the Arab governor of 
Babylonia, to inflict punishment on Dahir for the 
piratical seizure of an Arab ship at Debal, a little 
east of the present Karachi. After storming Debal, 
Muhammad marched up the old course of the Indus 
to a fort called Rawar, near Bahmanabad. Here Dahir 
was defeated and slain in a great battle, and his queen, 
Rani Bai, rather than fall into the hands of the enemy, 
after the capture of the fort, burned herself on a funeral 
pyre. Aror, Dahir's capital, as well as Multan, after 
prolonged sieges, capitulated ; and these successes 
completed the conquest of Sindh. Thenceforward it 
formed a province of the Khalifat, or Arab Empire, till, 
in 871 A.D,, it was separated into two independent 
kingdoms with their capitals at Multan and Mansura. 
After a long term of comparative power and prosperity, 
they both fell into disorder in 935 A.D., through the 
settlement in them of the Oarmatians, a heretical sect 
of Muhammadans. Finally in loio a.d., thej'^ were 
overthrown by the famous Mahmud, the orthodox 
Muhammadan ruler of Ghazni. 

The early history of the Punjab is no less obscure 
than that of Sindh. So much, however, is certain that, 
together with Gandhara, or Eastern 'Afghanistan, it 


The Kingdom of formed a kingdom which was ruled by 
tht Gh"azna^de ^ dynasty of so-called Turki Shahis, 
Invasions. residing in Kabul. Possibly their rule 

was only a revival of the kingdom of the 
Little Kushans, which, as we saw in the preceding chap- 
ter, had been temporarily overthrown by the Hunic inva- 
sion about 465 A.D., or they may have been a Hunic 
dynasty. Be that as it may, the rule of the Turki Shahis 
endured till about 870 a.d., when, as we know from Albe- 
runi's account, it was supplanted by their Brahman minis- 
ter Lalliya. He founded the so-called Brahman Shahi 
dynasty, which made Wahand ( Ohind ), on the Indus, their 
capital. Bhima Deva, the fourth of the Hne, appears to 
have been set aside, about 960 A.D., by the Rajput prince 
Jaipal, possibly a hinduized descendant of the Kushan 
dynasty. Under him the kingdom became limited to 
the Punjab, and its capital was transferred to Bhatinda, 
near Lahore. This happened in 989 a.d., as the result 
of an unsuccessful war with Sabuk Tigin, the Samanide 
governor of Ghazni, who extended his territory up to the 
Indus. The Rajput dynasty finally succumbed, in 102 1 
A.D., to the repeated attacks of Sultan Mahmud, the son 
and successor of Sabuk Tigin. This celebrated Sultan was 
the real founder of the Ghaznavide dynasty and empire. 
Having made himself independent of the Samanides, by 
conquering nearly the whole of their empire in Turkestan 
and Persia, he proceeded to extend his dominions into 
India, which he is said to have invaded no less than 
seventeen times. With the exception of three, all these 
campaigns were devoted to the conquest and permanent 
annexation of the frontier kingdoms of Sindh and the 
Punjab. The former, as we have seen, was reduced in loio 
A.D. Jaipal, of the Punjab, who attempted, in alliance 
with Rajyapala, king of Kanauj, and Ganda, king of the 
Chandels, to resist the further encroachments of Mahmud, 
was defeated in 100 1 A.D. Unable to bear his disgrace, 
he is said to have burned himself to death. His son, 
Anandpal, was defeated in 1009 a.d. Trilochanpal, 


who succeeded in 10 13 a.d., was also defeated and 
driven to take refuge in Kashmir. Thence, as we know 
from the Rajatarangini, or the Kashmir Chronicle, he 
attempted in 1021 A.D., with the support of a Kashmirian 
army, to recover his kingdom. But the crushing defeat 
which Mahmud inflicted on him and his allies put an end 
to his life as well as to his dynasty. Though a son of 
his, Bhimpal, escaped from the disaster, the Punjab 
formed henceforth a part of the Ghazni empire, and was 
administered by Muhammadan governors. 

In the campaign of 1009 a.d., after the death of 
Anandpal, Mahmud had captured „ , a^ n 
Nagarkot, or the Fort of Kangra. S^s a^t 
Here, for generations, the wealth of the the Indian King- 
kings of the Punjab and their chiefs doms. 
had been stored. The whole of this treasure — an 
incredible amount of jewels, money, and objects of 
silver and gold — was looted by Mahmud, and trans- 
ported to Ghazni. The sight of it served to whet 
the appetite for plunder, and crowds of Turkis and 
Afghans flocked to Mahmud's standard. With an army 
thus swelled, Mahmud set out on his three expeditions 
into the interior of India. They were, as a matter of 
fact, only far-reaching raids, undertaken with no aim at 
conquest, but simply for the sake of plunder and the 
satisfaction of a vow, made at the beginning of his reign, 
that every year should see him wage a holy war against 
the "infidels" of Hindustan. The first campaign, 1018 
A.D., was directed against the kingdom of Kanauj. 
Marching by way of Mathura, which he captured and 
plundered of the fabulous wealth of its temples, he 
advanced on Kanauj. Its king, Jaipal, had fled. His 
capital, with its seven forts, was taken in one day, and 
all its gorgeous temples were utterly despoiled. After 
treating similarly some other neighbouring towns, Mah- 
mud returned to Ghazni. The second campaign was 
directed ctgainst the kingdom of Bundelkhand, where, 
1023 A.D., Mahmud besieged Gwahor and Kalinjar. Its 


king, Ganda, saved himself only by buying off the in- 
vader with an enormous ransom. The third campaign 
took place in 1026 a.d., and had for its objective 
Somnath, the holy city of Gujarat, which lay at the 
furthest extremity of Kathiawar on the sea-coast, and 
was strongly fortified There stood one of the most 
sacred temples of the Hindus, enshrining a far-famed 
Lhiga, a conical stone of great size, visited by hundreds 
of thousands of pilgrims, and served, so it is said, by a 
thousand Brahmans who guarded its countless treasures 
of jewels and money. Mahmud captured the town 
with great slaughter, and sacked the temple. The great 
Linga was cast down and broken into four pieces, two 
of which were sent to Ghazni, and the others to Mecca 
and Medina, as witnesses of Mahmud's zeal for the Faith. 
The sandal wood gates of the temple, also, were carri- 
ed off to Ghazni, and a 
million pounds worth of 
■r-i 'v'k treasure is said to have re- 
1 '5 I ,w warded the "Idol-breaker," 
%jy^ by which name Mahmud 
"^i_2l>^ became hence-forth known. 
T J- ^ • r A» u J It was his last and most 

Indian Coin of Mahmud. . , . 

(Struck at Lahore, 1027 A.D.) noteworthy achievement. 

He died four years after- 
wards, in 1030 A.D. His successors continued to reign 
for about 150 years after his death ; but their power steadily 
waned. They were at last expelled from Gjiazni, and their 
dominion was narrowed down to the Punjab. The last of 
the dynasty was Khusrau Malik. With him the line ended, 
1 186 A.D., in the general conquest of India by Muhammad 

A survey of the general condition of the people in 

this period may now be given. The 
The Establish- process of assimilation of Brahmanism 
ment of Hindu- ^^^^ Buddhism, which was already in full 

operation in the preceding pe/iod, now 
ended with the complete establishment of Hinduism. A 


principal agent in effecting ibis result was the institution 
of rival monastic Orders among the Brahmanists. The 
beginning was made, about 800 a.d., by the famous 
Saiva reformer, Sankara Acharya, and his immediate dis- 
ciples. They founded the four Saiva Orders, which are 
known as the Dasanamis ; and these Orders, in their turn, 
led to the creation of the Vaishnava Orders. All these 
Brahmanist Societies carried on, among the mass of the 
people throughout the whole of India, a most effective 
propaganda in rivalry with the Buddhist and Jain 
monks. The difference between the two parties of 
rival monastic Orders ultimately became one of mere 
scholastic doctrine. In their outward manifestation, 
so far as it affected the mass of the— peo^ikL^jvith 
regard toj;eligiousjvorship3nd_social order, they both 
constituted but one system of Hinduism. Of this 
system we possess a valuable contemporary account 
by the celebrated Arab historian, Alberuni, in his 
Tahqiqul Hind, or Indian Research, which he completed 
in 103 1 A.D. As a natural consequence of its develop- 
ment, the old Brahmanism, as well as Buddhism, died 
out ; neither of them exist any more in India. Hinduism, 
however, possessed_ tlie jnhe rent weakness of being a 
compromise -between two decaying systems. This 
showed itself particularly in the decay of religion and 
its forms of worship, and in the ascendancy of the Sakta 
sect and its religious practices, which consisted mainly 
in the worship of Saktis, or female deities, and were of 
a kind that dared not show themselves in the light of 
day. It is a form of sectarian religion which is still onjy 
too widely prevalent, particularly in Bengal^ and ifs 
influence is only now beginning to wane with the pro- 
gress of modern enlightenment. 

The establishrngnt ofLHinduis m had anothe rjresuh. 
The cultivaTion of Classic Sanskrit 
literature and philosophy, which had c°"^w°t" °^ 
owed its /ise to the early fervour of the LUerature. 
Brahmanical revival, began to decline 



in this period. Still, from time to time, we meet with 
striking exceptions. Thus we have the two great 
champions of Brahmanism, Kumarila Bhatta, about 725 
A.D., and Sankara Acharya, about 800 A.D., who wrote 
the Tantra Varttika and the Brahtnasidra Bhashya, 
the standard commentaries respectivel}'^ on the Mimamsa 
and Vedanta philosophy. As representatives of light 
literature we have, about 735 a.d., Bhavabhuti, the 
greatest dramatist next to KaHdasa, who, among other 
works, wrote the romantic drama Malati Madhava, or 
the love story of the princess Malati and a young scholar 
Madhava ; about 860 A D., the poet, Magha, who wrote 
the epic poem Sisupalavadha, or the slaughter of 
Sisupala by Vishnu; about 910 a.d., the dramatist, 
Rajasekhara, who wrote several plays of exquisite 
lightness and grace ; and about iioo a.d., the lyric poet 
Jaya Deva, the author of the famous Gitagovi7ida, or 
Song of Krishna's love for Radha. In the first half of 
the eleventh century specially, as we have already seen, 
the court of Bhoja Deva, the Parmar king of Malwa, 
w^as a great centre of Sanskrit learning. He is himself 
said to have been a poet, and, like Vishnu Vardhana 
(Vikramaditya) and Harsha Vardhana, to have delighted 
in collecting learned men around him. 

As the establishment of Hinduism had marked the 
•• :^ earlier part of this period, so its later 

Son of ^Islam!" P^^^ ^'^^ distinguished by the introduc- 
tion of Muhammadanism. The advent 
of Islam in India was co-incident with areyolting 
departure from previous methodS-iil f war fare'. Wholesale 
massacres of the male population of forts and towns, such 
as occurred at the time of their capture by Muhammadan 
armies, were a feature liitherto unknown in purely 
Indian warfare. Yet it would be wrong to set it down 
altogether to the account of the faith of the invaders. 
It was rather due to the fierceness of the natural tem- 
perament of the Arab and Turki races who werfe unable 
to brook stubborn resistance, and were apt to be carried 


away beyond all bounds by savage resentment. Massa- 
cres in cold blood, or wanton cruelty, cannot be proved 
in the cases of Muhammad-i-Oasim and Mahmud of 
Ghazni. On the contrary, there is evidence of much 
toleration. To those who submitted, liberal terms were 
granted. Accep tance of the Muhammadan faith wa s 
not enforced on the general_pop ula tion, whatever rn ay. 
have been JTie ]ca se~"wi I1 0ndrvTdu al s. Apart from the 
actual moment of conquest, when temples were destroy- 
ed or turned into mosques, the institutions of Hindu 
worship and caste were not interfered with. The 
Brahmans and their temples were not only tolerated, but 
even protected, and the Hindu forms of administration 
were largely retained. All that was exacted from the 
Hindu population was the payment of the jiziya, or poll- 
tax. This, no doubt, was a heavy impost, but, on the 
other hand, it gave exemption from compulsory military 
service. Nor did intellectual culture suffer through the 
change of rulers, except in one point. Wherever I slain 
became domin ant, it was no longer Sanskrit but Arabi c 
and Persian ht erature^ and sciencejwhich enjoyed its^ 
patronage^^ ATTtTe'very time~when Sanslml Tetters 
flourisE^raTthe court of King Bhoja ... 
Deva of Malwa, the court of Mahmud sian Literature' 
in Ghazni became a brilliant centre of 
Persian learning. Two of the best known among the 
many men of culture whom Mahmud assembled round 
him, were Alberuni, the eminent chronologist, who has 
already been mentioned, and who wrote both in Arabic 
and in Persian, and the poet Firdausi, who wrote the 
celebrated Persian epic, called the Shahnama, or the 
Book of Kings, the great store-house of the ancient 
traditions of Persia. 


The Early /Huhammadan Period : 

The Mubammadao Conquest, and the Third (First Muham^ 
madan), or Turki Empire. 

About 1 200 — 7525 A.D. 

THE preceding period has already given us a glimpse 
of the impending conquest of India by the Turkis, 
It has shown us how ill-prepared India " ' 

was to meet that crisis. We have seen Remark?°^^ 
it divided into a number of smaller 
kingdoms, which had portioned among themselves the 
imperial inheritance, and were fighting with one another 
for the imperial crown. In the north there were five 
such kingdoms : those of BengatT'Ka ngujT^undelkhand, 
Mal\va7"^nd^"^ujaraf^^ Their rulers each claimed" to be 
the rigHtful '^'^^Tiiperor." Foremost among them was 
the King of Kanauj, whose claims, as the direct representa- 
tive of the older empire, were popularl}' considered the 
best. But his power was not equal to his pretensions. 
The Chohan lords of his Western Marches, Delhi and 
Ajmir, were grow^ing in importance and inclining to 
throw off the overlordship of Kanauj. Intent upon 
nursing their mutual jealousies, the kings and chiefs of 
Northern India failed to detect the danger to their 
common country that was growing up on its western 
borders in the rising empire of the Turkis. 

In the midst of Afghanistan, in the mountains of 
Ghor, to the west of Ghazni, there 
hved a hardy race of Tajiks, or men of Jan C?nqS^" 
mixed Arab descent, under a chief called 
Suri. One of his descendants, Alauddin, known as 
Jahansoz, or the World-burner, on account of his ferocity, 
revolted about 1 150 A.D., against his Ghaznavide overlord 


and drove him into the Punjab. His nephew, Ghiyas- 
uddin, finally overturned the empire of Ghazni, and 
founded that of the Ghoris. This happened in 1186 
A.D., when Muizuddin, the brother and co-regent of 
Ghiyasuddin, generally known as Muhammad Ghori, 
conquered the Punjab, the last remnant of the once 
powerful Ghaznavide empire. Its province of Sindh 
had already been annexed by him in 1175 a.d. He 
now took in hand the conquest of the Hindu kingdoms 
on his eastern frontier. With a large army of Turkis, 
Afghans, and Tajiks he set out eastward. Prithiraj, the 
Chohan lord of the Western Marches, Delhi and Ajmir, 
assembled all his feudal chiefs with their Rajput levies 
to meet the attack. Twice the opposing armies met on 
the same battlefield near Thanesar. The first time, in 
1 191 A.D., Muhammad Ghori was defeated and retired 
to Ghazni, but in the following year, 1 1 92 a.d., he return- 
ed, and this time totally defeated Prithiraj who was 
captured and soon afterwards slain. The immediate result 
of the victory was the capture^ in 1193 a.d., of Delhi 
andAjinir , and the annexation oTtheir territofies. The 
furlher prosecution of the conquest was entrusted by 
Muhammad to his most capable general, Qutbuddin 
Aibak, a Turki slave. This general first turned his arms 
against the kingdom of Kanauj, the ruler of which Jaya 
Chandra, it is said, had refused to come to the assistance 
of his contumacious vassal, Prithiraj. Jaya Chandra 
was defeated and slain, in 1194 a.d., in a battle near 
Etawa, and, as a result, the whole of his kingdom, as far 
as Benares, fell into the power of Qutbuddin The latter 
now despatched Muhammad-i-Bakhtiyar, who held a 
subordinate command under him, to continue the east- 
ward conquest of the kingdoms of Bihar and Bengal, 
while he himself undertook the task of reducing to 
submission the kingdoms of Bundelkhand, Malwa, and 
Gujarat, In this, however, he was only partially 
successful. For those three kingdoms maintained them- 
selves in a state of semi-independence down to the time 


of the Khalji dynasty, in the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. By the year 1205 a.d., the conquest of the 
whole of Northern India was practically completed. 
In the following year, 1206 a.d., Muhammad Ghori was 
murdered in his tent beside the Indus by some Musalman 
heretics, or, as others say, by a band of Hindu Khokhars. 
The Ghoride Empire, founded by Muizuddin 

Muhammad, did not outlast his death. 
The Slave Dyn- It separated into two parts. The west- 
Y^ i^^O^-^^^O em portion, beyond the Indus, passed to 

his son, while of the eastern portion 
Qutbuddin Aibak assumed the sovereignty, and thus 
became the founder of the Third Indian, or First Muham- 
madan, Empire in India (wrongly called the Pathan). 
His line, known as that of the Turki Slaves, and com- 
prising ten Sultans, ruled down to 1290 A.D. But the 
only two important ones, beside himself, are the third, 
Shamsuddin Altamsh (1210-1236 A.D.), and the tenth, 
Ghiyasuddin Balban (i 266-1 287 a.d.). Aibak was only 
the nominal ruler of Northern India ; his actual rule ex- 
tended no further than Hindustan. In the provinces of 
Sindh and the Punjab, as well as in Bihar and Bengal, 
his governors exercised practically independent sove- 
reignty ; and the Hindu rulers of Bundelkhand, Malwa, 
and Gujarat were never fully subjected. Altamsh, a 
Turki slave and son-in-law of Aibak, was engaged, 
throughout his long reign of 26 years, in constant wars 
with his contumacious governors and the irrepressible 
Rajput kings. When at last, 1235 a.d., he succeeded 
in making his authority respected, he enjoyed his 
success only one year, dying in 1236 a.d. Exactly 
the same state of things repeated itself after his death. 
Under his immediate successors, in spite of the able, but 
too short, reign of his daughter Raziyyat, the imperial 
authority again declined ; and Balban, a Turki slave and 
father-in-law of Mahmud, son of Altamsh, had to go 
once more through the wearisome process of re'^onstruc- 
tion. He performed his task with conspicuous ability, 


first, for twenty years, as the all-powerful minister of 
Mahmud I (1246- 1266 a.d.), and then for another 
twenty years as sovereign in his own right (1266- 1287 
A.D.). He has earned for himself a reputation for 
cruelty ; and the extreme severity of his treatment of 
his foes is undeniable. But it only reflected the manners 
of his time, and though it may not be justified, we can 
understand it in view of the extreme difficulties of the 
emperor's position. He had to protect his western 
frontiers against the repeated inroads of the savage 
Mughal hordes of Chingis Khan's successors, and within 
the empire he had to suppress the chronic disaffection 
of the Hindu chiefs, and keep down thepretensions of 
his overbearing Turki governors and landholders. All 
this had to be done at one and the same time : and this 
sufficiently explains Balban's severity, without which he 
could not have succeeded as he did. Yet his success did 
not long survive him. After a feeble reign of three 
years, his worthless grandson, Kaiqobad, was put to 
death, in 1290 a.d., by his great officers of state, who 
conferred the crown on one of themselves, the pious 
and kindhearted Jalaluddin. 

As emperor, Jalaluddin styled himself Firuz Shah 
n. He was a Turki of the Khalji clan, 
and his line accordingly is known as the Dynasty (1290- 
Khalji dynasty. This dynasty reigned 132OA.D.) 
for 30 years (1290-1320 a.d.) and com- 
prised six members. Among these there was only one 
who is of real importance— the third of the line, Alaud- 
din Muhammad I (1296-1316 a.d.). During his long 
reign of 20 years the Empire attained its greatest power 
and its widest extent. In his personality and rule we 
find, in most respects, a curious repetition of Balban. 
He was as able and as strong as Balban, and even more 
cruel than he, and like him he re-organized an empire 
which he had received in a process of disintegration. 
Having "stepped to the throne over the body of his uncle 
whom he had treacherously murdered, he energetically 



set about the reconstruction of the empire. In 1298 
A.D., Gujarat was re-conquered, Rajputana in 1300, 
and Malwa in 1304. The mighty Mughal hordes which 
in repeated invasions had ventured to advance to the 
very gates of Delhi, were finally beaten off in 1305 a.d. 
Intermediately, Muhammad I cruelly suppressed a 
serious mutiny of his troops and several revolts of his own 
kinsmen and nobles. At the same time he introduced 
administrative reforms regulating agriculture and trade, 
and by these means he effectually secured the stability of 
his rule. Having accomplished all this, he again put his 
hand to the ambitious plan of conquering Southern 
India — a plan which he seems to have cherished from 
the day of his capture of Devagiri in 1294 ^•^- This 

is shown by his as- 
suming the title of 
Sikayidar as-Sani, 
or the second 
Alexander, on the 
exceedingly nu- 
merous gold and 
silver coins, which 
he struck from the 
plunder of the vast 
wealth of that place. He now despatched his general, 
Mahk Kafur, on four expeditions into the Deccan. In 
these he successively reduced to subjection the Yadavas 
of Devagiri in 1307 A.D., the Kakatiyas of Warangal in 
1 3 10, and the Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra in 1311. He 
even made a plundering raid as far south as the Malabar 
coast, near Madura. These expeditions, as we have seen 
in the preceding chapter, put an end to the old Southern 
Empire of the Hindus. They raised Muhammad Is 
reign and the First Muliammadan Empire to the zenith 
of their glory. The latter empire now rivalled that of 
the Guptas by embracing nearly the whole of India ; 
but, as was the case with the Gupta Empire, its sway was 
neither effective nor enduring. South India acknowledged 

Gold Sikandar as-Sani Coin of Muhammad I, 

Ch. IXJ the early muhammadan period. 97 

it only so long as she was overawed by the imperial 
troops, and the outlying provinces, such as Bengal, 
respected it hardly more than in name. Muhammad I, 
whose master-mind alone held the empire together, 
died of dropsy in 1316 a.d. After him, under his profli- 
gate and faithless son Mubarak, there ensued a general 
breakdown, both internal and external, which culminated 
in 1320 A.D. in the extraordinary usurpation of the 
throne by Mubarak's favourite, the utterly depraved and 
low-caste Hindu, Khusru. A reaction was not long 
delayed. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, the governor of the 
Punjab, came to the rescue, and defeated and executed 
the usurper in the same year. 

Seeing that the Khalji House had been extermin- 
ated by the usurper, Tughlaq himself 
was called to the throne by the nobles TheKaraunaof 
and officers of state. According to Ibn- Dy§asty'^a320- 
Batuta he was a Karauna, i.e., of mixed 1414, A.D.) 
Turki and Indian descent, and he thus 
became the founder of the Karauna or Tughlaq-shahi 
dynasty which reigned for nearly a century (1320-1414 
A.D.) It gave to India, in Muhammad II, the son of 
Tughlaq (1325-135 1 a.d.), the most striking figure among 
the rulers of the first Muhammadan Empire. He was 
a man of high culture, great intellect, and indomitable 
will. His conduct was full of contradictions, acts 
of extravagant generosity alternating with others of 
incredible cruelty. Ibn-Batuta, the Arab traveller, who 
visited his court in 1333 a.d., tells us that " at his gate 
there might always be seen some faqir whom he had 
enriched, or the corpse of some one whom he had slain." 
His mind was that of a genius with a strain of madness. 
The most striking administrative acts of his reign were 
the attempted removal, in 1339 a.d., of the capital from 
Delhi to the more centrally situated Devagiri which he 
re-named Daulatabad, and the attempted enrichment, 
in 1327 A.D., of the national exchequer by the introduc- 
tion of a brass token currency. Both ideas were 



Brass Token of Muhammad II. 

excellent in conception. Muhammad II rightly saw that 

a vast and imperfectly- 
welded empire such as 
his required a central 
capital and a well-filled 
treasury. But the pro- 
jects were enforced 
with so little foresight 
and brought so much 
suffering on the people, 
that they utterly failed 
and had to be abandoned. When he recognized their 
failure, Muhammed II was honest enough to frankly 
abandon them. But the mischief was done ; nor could 
he repair it by the confirmation of his sovereignty, which 
he secured, in 1340 a.d., from the Khalifah of Egypt. 
It resulted in the ruin of the magnificent empire which 
he had inherited from his father. Bengal in 1339 a.d., 
and the Deccan in 1347, declared themselves indepen- 
dent ; and when Muhammad II died in 1351 a.d., Oudh, 
Malwa, Gujarat and Sindh w^ere in revolt. The further 
disintegration of the empire was for a time averted by 
the long and prosperous reign of his cousin, Firuz III 
(1351-1388 A.D.). This mild and pious sovereign made 
no attempt to recover the lost provinces, but applied 
himself, with the help of his wise wazir, Maqbul Khan, 
to the better development of those that still remained 
to him. His chief measures for this purpose were the 
abolition of certain oppressive taxes, the construction of 
the still-existing Great Jumna Canal and other irrigation 
works, the reclamation of waste lands, and the founding 
of new towns, colleges, serais and other public buildings. 
On the other hand, the mildness of his rule, combined 
with his system of granting whole provinces in fief to 
successful courtiers, directly contributed to the final 
break-up of the empire, which ensued soon after his death 
in 1 388 A.D. His sons and grandsons, six of whomreigned 
after him, were unable to maintain their authority over 


the viceroys of Oudh, Malwa, Gujarat, and the Western 
Marches, Between 1394 and 1401, these, one after the 
other, turned their fiefs into independent kingdoms. 
They thus reduced the imperial possessions so much that 
these hardly comprised more than the home province of 
Delhi, that is the Doab and Rohtak. The general turmoil 
of the time reached its climax in the fearful invasion of 
Timur, the celebrated Mughal leader, who captured Delhi 
in December 1398 a.d. The invasion lasted only six 
months ; but the incredible devastation which Timur left 
in his track, earned for him the name of "the Scourge 
of God." 

With the death, in 14 1 2 A.D. , of Mahmud II, a grand- 
son of Firuz III, the Empire virtually 
came to an end. In mere name, it is The Dissolution 
true, it continued to exist for a little more Emp^p^ Third 
than another century, but in reality it 
was now divided into a number of independent kingdoms. 
These were the territory of Delhi, which nominally 
represented the Empire, and the kingdoms of Oudh, 
Malwa, and Gujarat. To them must be added the king- 
doms of Bengal and the Deccan, which, as we have seen, 
had already become separate under Muhammad II. 

In 1414 A D. Khisr Khan, who had been the governor 
of Multan, took possession of Delhi, 
and founded the so-called Sayvid dy- The Kingdoni of 
nasty. It numbered four members, Jj)^ ^^^^'^'^^^^ 
whose feeble efforts were limited to 
keeping a hold on the small territory which still laid claim 
to the name of " Empire." It was put an end to in 1451 
A.D., by Buhlol Lodi, the Afghan governor of Lahore. 
During his long reign of 38 years he succeeded in 
re-annexing to the empire the kingdom of Jaunpur. But 
the revival of its authority did not outlive his reign, and 
under his son, Ibrahim II, the third and last of the Lodi 
dynasty, the First Muhammadan Empire was finally 
extinguished in 1526 a.d., by Babar, who founded the 
Second Muhammadan Empire of the Mughals. 



The kingdom of Jaunpur roughly coincided with 

what is now called Oudh. It had been 

The Kingdom of one of the great fiefs of the empire, 

n394'^7"A if) '^^l^o^^ governor, Malik Sarwar, assumed 

independence in 1394 a.d., during the 

troublous time under Firuz Ill's feeble successors. He 

founded the so- 
called Sharqi, or 
Eastern, dynasty, 
which included six 
members. Only 
one of these, how- 
ever, the third of 
the Ime, Ibrahim, 
was of any import- 
ance. He greatly 
extended his bor- 
ders, and at one 
time came near to 
"%i^ making himself 
a Emperor of Delhi. 
His long reign of 
39 years (1 40 1 -1 440 
the finest specimens 

Atala Mosque. 

ed by the erection of some of 

of Muslim architecture, such as the Atala Mosque, with 
which he adorned his capital Jaunpur. After him the 
dynasty rapidly declined, till, in 1487 a.d., the kingdom 
was re-annexed to the empire by Buhlol Lodi. 

The kingdom of Malwa arose in 1401 a.d., when 
its governor, Dilawar Khan, said to have 
been a descendant of the old Ghori I^f^*"^^4m °' 
emperors, made himself independent. issqTa.d!) 
The Ghori line, however, was supplanted, 
in 1436 A.D., by the Khalji dynasty of Mahmud. Under 
these two dynasties, the kingdom of Malwa, owing to 
its position between the warring states of Delhi, Jaunpur, 
and Gujarat, was able to maintain only a precarious 


existence, down to 1530 A.D , when it was annexed by 
the neighbouring kings of Gujarat. 

The latter province broke away from the Empire 
as an independent kingdom about the 
same time as Oudh and Malwa. Zafar P?^^"^^°E«^ 
Khan, to whom Firuz III had granted i57^2^a^D.) 
the fief of Gujarat, assumed independ- 
ence, in 1396 A.D., under the style of Muzaffar I. For 
nearly two centuries thirteen of his descendants ruled 
ithe kingdom, down to 1572 a.d , when it was annexed 
jby Akbar to the Mughal Empire. The greatest among 
them was Bahadur Shah ( 1 526-1 536 A D.), who annexed 
the kingdom of Malwa. In 1535 he lost his territories 
to Humayun, but recovered them in the same year with 
the assistance of the Portuguese, to whom he ceded the 
island of Diu. 

The Empire had never had, for any length of time, 
an effective control over Bengal. Its 
governors ruled mostly in a state of semi- The Kingdom 
independence. In 1338 a.d., however, Jissg^is^ A.D.) 
the governor of Eastern Bengal assumed 
full independence; and in 1339 A. D., the governor of 
Western Bengal followed his example. Both portions 
of Bengal were united in 1352 a.d. under the rule of 
Shamsuddin Ilyas; and his dynasty continued to reign, 
with a short interruption of about three years, down to 
1487 a.d. Thenceforward Bengal was ruled successively 
by four different dynasties, down to 1577 a.d., when 
it was annexed by Akbar to the Mughal Empire. 

Equally weak was the hold of the Empire on the 
Deccan. In 1347 A.D, Hasan Gangu, 
called Bahman Shah, assumed royalty at The King-dom of 
Khulbarga. His dynasty, known as the (i^7_i52^6^A.D.) 
Bahmani, reigned for nearly two centu- 
ries. Under Muhammad II (1463-1482) the kingdom 
attained its widest extension, and included the whole of 
the Deccait north of Mysore. Shortly afterwards, how- 
ever, it began to fall to pieces, through the several 


provincial governors assuming independence. Thus 
there arose five new states. These were : — 

1. Berar, under the Imad-shahis (1485-1572 a.d.). 

2. Ahmadnagar, under the Nizam-shahis (1490- 

1636 A.D.). 
5. Bijapur, under the Adil-shahis (1490-1686 a.d.). 

4. Bidar, under the Barid-shahis (1492-1609 A.D.). 

5. Golkonda, under the Qutb-shahis (1512-1687 


All these states, as we shall see in the next chapter, 
were ultimately absorbed into the Mughal Empire. 

The country to the south of the Bahmani kingdom 

had attained its independence some- 

The Hindu King- what earlier. It was about 1336 a.d., 

naffap^^dsH^^^" ^^"''^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ subversion of the 
1565 A.D.) Hoysala kingdom by Muhammad I, 

that a Hindu chief, called Harihara I, 
was appointed by him to govern a part of the 
country. About 1343 a.d., having formed a con- 
federacy of Hindu princes, Harihara I expelled the 
Muhammadans, and greatly enlarged his territory. 
His nephew, Harihara II, about 1379 a.d., assumed 
independent royalty, making the newly-founded town 
of Vijayanagar his capital. He gradually enlarged 
his kingdom so much that it embraced not only Mysore 
but also practically the whole of the country to the south 
of it. For about two hundred years, during which it was 
ruled by two different Hindu dynasties, it maintained its 
power in constant warfare with its northern Muhamma- 
dan neighbours. At last it was overpowered, in 1565 
A.D., in the battle of Talikot, by the combined armies of 
Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, and Golkonda. But the Muham- 
madan confederates, divided by mutual jealous}', were 
unable to annex more than a very small part of the 
kingdom. The rest of its territory remained in the hands 
of petty Hindu chiefs, while a representative of the old 
dynasty removed to Chandragiri, and there founded a 
new line of petty kings. It was from a member of this 


line that the English received, in 1639 a.d., a grant of 
the site of Madras. 

The establishment of the Bijapur state has a special 
interest through its connection with the 
foundation of the Portuguese Eastern th^P^t^^^^^ ^^ 
Empire. The Portuguese, as will be ^^ ug-uese, 

more fully told in Chapter XI, first arrived in India in 
1498 A.D., m which year Vasco da Gama landed in 
Cahcut, the capital of a petty Hindu state. Failing to 
establish themselves there they proceeded, under the 
celebrated Admiral Alfonso d' Albuquerque, to Goa, which 
was comprised in the Bijapur territory. This place was 
captured by them in 15 10 a.d., and henceforth formed 
the capital of the Portuguese possessions in India. 

It remains briefly to review the general condition 
of the people during this period of Turki 
rule. The form of government was auto- The condition 
cratic ; the emperor's will was absolute. °nd^^ ^the^^ 
In theor}', no doubt, it was restricted by Turki Empire, 
the equitable principles of Muhammadan 
law, but there was no means of enforcing on the emperor 
those restrictions. Whether his rule was benevolent or 
oppressive depended entirely on his personal character. 
On the other hand, in either case, it affected equally 
the Muhammadan and the Hindu ; religion made no 
material difference. Moreover, the arbitrary and oppres- 
sive nature of the Turki rule made itself felt principally 
in relation to those who were in a position to exercise 
any political influence. The condition of the ordinary 
population, as we know from contemporary writers, 
such as the Arab Ibn-Batuta (about 1340 A.D.), and the 
Italian Nicolo Conti (about 1430 A.D.), w^as practically 
free from oppression. Of course, this remark applies 
more praticularly to such benevolent reigns as those of 
Firuz II of the Khalji and Firuz III of the Karauna 
dynasties. But the mischief of the despotic Turki rule 
was that *the periods of benevolent reign only served to 
encourage the numerous Rajput chiefs to attempt 


independence, and the Muhammadan grandees to 
intrigue against the throne. These, in their turn, neces- 
sarily produced reigns of excessive cruelty and oppres- 
sion such as were those of Muhammad I of the Khalji 
and Muhammad II of the Karauna dynasties. It was 
this regular alternation of benevolence and tyranny 
which caused the ruin of the Turki Empire, 

Islam, as we have seen in the last chapter, was 

introduced only in a limited sense by force. 
Islam^^^ The Hindu population was offered the 

choice of conversion or the payment of 
the poll-tax. In the former case the converts enjoyed 
the privileges of the ruling class, and it can readily 
be understood that not a few of the old ruling classes 
among the Hindus preferred the adoption of the 
Muslim faith to sinking into the abject position of 
a subject class. In addition to these Hindu converts, 
the invading armies themselves gave rise to considerable 
colonies of Turki and Afghan settlers. Both causes 
combined explain the large proportion of Musalmans in 
the population of those parts of India which came under 
the direct rule of the Turki Empire. Outside its limits, 
in such provinces as, for example, Rajputana, Bundel- 
khand and Mysore, where the old Hindu ruling houses 
continued to exist in semi-independence, the religious 
and social state of the people remained practically the 
same as before the Muhammadan conquest. Even in 
the Empire proper, though the Hindu was regarded 
with some contempt, he was, ordinarily, not treated with 
hostility. He was liable to the jiziya, but he was not 
molested in his religion or in his social customs. In fact 
many Hindus were employed, and rose to high office, in 
the revenue and accounts departments of the government; 
and though in civil cases, as a rule, the Muhammadan 
law was administered by the Qazi, criminal and adminis- 
trative cases were dealt with by the emperor's officers 
in accordance with a kind of common law, founded on 
old Indian custom and the sovereign's discretion. The 


prosperity of the country is evidenced by the private 
and public buildings, irrigation work, bridges, serais, and 
hospitals, which were constructed throughout the empire. 

Hinduism, which we saw established in India in 
the course of the preceding period, natur- 
ally declined with the advance of Islam. Hinduism and 
It was only in the extreme south, in the Learnfnff 
Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, beyond 
the depressing influence of the Muhammadan Empire, 
that it showed any signs of vigorous life. There we find, 
about 1350 A.D., the two famous brothers, Madhava and 
Sayana — both ministers at the Vijayanagar court. The 
former wrote the Sarvadarsa?ia Saiigraha, or Compen- 
dium of all Speculations, and other philosophical works, 
while the second was the author of the celebrated com- 
mentary on the Vedas. To the earlier Chola kingdom 
in the South, Hinduism owed its eventual revival in 
Northern India. Ramanuja, the great Vishnava re- 
former, lived there in the twelfth century, and from him 
were spiritually descended Ramananda and Chaitanya, 
the apostles of the two branches of Vaishnavism in 
Hindustan and Bengal respectively. The former, who 
hved chiefly at Benares, in the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, was the zealous propagator of devotion to 
Rama, while his contemporary, Chaitanya, a Brahman 
of Nadiya, inspired by the tender sonnets of the famous 
poet Vidyapati to an enthusiastic cult of Krishna, became 
the founder of the Vaishnava sect of Bengal. About 
the same time, one of Ramananda's disciples, Kabir, a 
weaver of Benares, began to preach a more eclectic 
form of Hinduism, which by its insistence on simplicity 
and probity, appealed to both Hindus and Musal- 
mans, and thus gave rise to the wide-spread sect of 

Many of the Muhammadan rulers of this period — 
emperors as well as kings — were great 
patrons of art and learning. Numerous cuitu^™^*^^^ 
Persian historians flourished at their 



courts. Every great reign had its own historian. Among 
the more prominent hterary men may be mentioned 
Minhajuddin, the historian (about 1240 A.D.), Amir 
Khusran, the poet (1300 A.D.), and Ibn-Batula, the tra- 
veller (about 1335 A.D.). Some of the most beautiful 
architectural monuments were erected during this period. 
Thus in 1235 A.D., the famous Qutb Minar near Delhi 
was built by Altamsh in memory of the Musalman saint 
Qutbuddin. In 14 18 Ibrahim, the Sharqi king, erected 

the beautiful 
Atala Mosque 
in Jaunpur, and 
in 1526 A.D., 
Nasrat Shah of 
Bengal, built 
the so-called 
" Great Golden 
Mosque " at 
Gaur. The Em- 
peror Altamsh 
started a new 

Tanka of the Emperor Altamsh. 

Indian currency of broad silver pieces, called Tanka, 
which are the ancestors of the modern rupee. The 
empire even gave birth to a new language, the well- 
known Urdu or Hindustani, which still serves as a kind 
of lingua franca for the most part of In dia. It arose in 
the thirteenth century, after the conquest of the old Hindu 
kingdom of Kanauj, from the vernacular dialect of 
which it was formed by combination with the Persian 
language of the Muhammadan conquerors. 


The Later Muhammadan Period. : 

Section !♦ 
The Fourth Indian, Second Muhammadan, or Mughal, Empire, 

About IS 26 — iSoj A.D. 

IT has already been mentioned that in 1399 Timur 
invaded India. He did not, however, gain any 
territories. It was left for one of his descendants to 
establish a glorious empire such as had never yet been 
in Hindustan. This descendant was Babar, 

Babar, 1526-1530.— Babar, i.e., the Lion, was born 

in 1482, and was the sixth in descent 

from Timur. When he v.-as only twelve Babar. 

years of age his father died, and he 

began to rule the small kingdom of Farghana on the 

Yaxartes, 1494. He 
conquered Samar- 
khand in 1497, and 
was made ruler of 
Kabul in 1 504. 
Daulat Khan Lodi, 
the Governor of the 
Punjab, unable to 
resist Ibrahim Lodi II 
of Delhi sinj^le-hand- 
ed, invited Babar to 
come to his assistance. 
Accordingly in 1526, 
at the head of a large 
army, Babar entered 
India with his son, 
Huma)'un ; defeated 
Ibrahim Lodi II. in 
the First Battle of 
Emperor Babar. Panipat ; seized the 


throne of Delhi, and put an end to the Lodi dynasty. 
The brave Rajputs of Chittor, under Rana Sangram Sinha 
of Mewar, tried to drive him out of India, but they 
were defeated in the battle of Fatehpur Sikri near Agra, 
1527. Babar died in 1530, shortly after he had subdued 
Bihar, and before he could introduce a system of 
government The provinces which he acquired in India 
were bound together merely by the fact that they 
belonged to a common master. 

Humayun, 1530-1556. — Babar was succeeded by 

his son Humayun, the story of whose 

Humayun and reign, however, belongs mainly to Kabul. 

onhe^Mughals! ^^ ^P^" ^^ ^""^ ^^^^ to the throne, he 
had to give up that kingdom and West- 
ern Punjab to his brother Kumran. He was thus cut off 
from the land of his fathers, while at the same time he 
had powerful enemies to encounter in India. Chief 
among these was Sher Khan, the Afghan jagirdar of 
Saseram in Bihar. Making himself master of Bihar, 
Jaunpur, and parts of Bengal and Oudh, he finally de- 
feated Humayun at Kanauj (1540). Unable to continue 
the struggle, Humayun fle d to Persia, and on the way 
' a son — tireliHous~Slc5ar — was born to 

Sher Khan's him at Amarkot in Sindh. Having esta- 

E'^<Pf'^®r;^'^"l!I^H" blished his supremacy in the tract of 
stpation and , . | 4.1 at 1 j j 

Character. country lymg between the Narbada and 

the Himalayas, Sher Khan proclaimed 
himself emperor under the name of Sher Shah, and set 
up the Sur dynasty. His own reign lasted from 1540 
to 1545, and he ruled over the Punjab, Bihar, Marvvar, 
Chittor, and Bengal. His administration was based 
upon the principle of unit3^ He rendered life and 
property secure by putting down all violent crime ; and 
though his subjects feared to oppose his will, he did not 
oppress the Hindus. He divided his territories into 
many parganahs in order that they might be properly- 
administered. Between Bengal and the north-west 


frontier he had many roads made, and along them he 
had trees planted, wells dug, rest-houses and mosques 
built. He introduced a system of post for the con- 
veyance of letters. The law of Islam he replaced by a 
civil and criminal code of his own. He died of injuries 
received in the storming of Kalinjar (1545). On the 
whole he was a good ruler, and his occasional treachery 
and self-will were redeemed by the good government 
he bestowed on his subjects. 

His son, Islam Shah, succeeded him, and ruled for 
nine years (1545-1554), and the throne ^^.^^.. „^ 
then passed to Muhammad Adil Shah, fhe MifghSs 
This king left all real power in the 
hands of the Hindu Wazir, Hemu. Naturally rebellions 
arose. Ibrahim Sur seized Delhi and Agra, but he did 
not long enjoy his new possessions, for they were taken 
from him by Sikandar Sur who had already proclaimed 
himself king in the Punjab. News of all this and of 
other rivalries, reached Huma^un in P ersia, and he r e-, 
garded it as a favourable opportunilyjto tr}^o win backj 
India for himself. Accordingly, in 1555, he returned 
with his son, Akbar, and a large army which he had 
received from Shah Tahmasp, the Shah of Persia. He 
retook Kabul, but as the country was not quelled he 
entrusted the campaign against Sikandar Sur in the 
Punjab to Akbar and his Ataliq, Bairam Khan. The 
young prince, however, had to give up his operations 
against Sikandar, in order that he might check Hemu, 
the former Wazir of Muhammad Adil Shah, who was 
marching on Agra with a large army, ostensibly in the 
interests of the Sur dynasty. By the time Akbar 
reached Jalandhar, Hemu had taken Agra, an advantage 
which he improved by occupying Delhi, where he pro- 
claimed himself Raja. Akbar hastened on to Delhi : 
defeated Hemu, in the Second Battle of Panipat (5th 
Nov. 1556), and recovered Agra. This done, with 
Bairam Khan, he turned upon Sikandar Sur, and even- 
tually became master of the Punjab. Thus was the 



Mughal dynasty restored to power in Hindustan, and 
Hunia^mn sat on the throne from which, sixteen years 
previously, he had been driven. But he was not to reign 
long. Within six months he slipped^ on the marble 
steps of his palace in Delhi, and died from the injuries 
he received. Akbar was at Kalanaur in pursuit of the 
vanquished Sikandar when tidings reached him of his 
father's death, and he returned to Delhi. 


Akbar, 1556-1605.— When he came to the throne, 
Akbar was only sixteen years of age ; but 
he had already commanded troops, and 
been at the head of public affairs. His 
Ataliq, Bairam Khan, seems to have kept a strict hand 

over him. This the 
spirited prince resent- 
ed, and as soon as he 
attained the age of 
twenty he took over 
the government from 
Bairam Khan who had 
hitherto ruled in his 
name. This displeased 
Bairam Khan. He re- 
volted ; was defeated ; 
and pardoned. He set 
out on a pilgrimage to 
Mecca ; but was killed 
on the way by an 
Afghan whose father 
he had put to death. 

Flaving established 
himselfupon the throne, 
Akbar now began to con- 
solidate his empire. Up to 1567 he was occupied in settling 
his eastern territories around Allahabad, 
StndSftln ind Benares, and Lucknow. Thdn he took 
the Deeean. Mewar from Udai Singh, a Rajput chief. 

Emperor Akbar. 


To cement a friendship with these brave people, he mar- 
ried two Rajput princesses, one of whom became the 
mother of Jahangir. In 1572 Gujarat was annexed, and 
Akbar found himself master of Western India. Broach 
and Surat were next added to his kingdom. Thus in the 
eighteenth year of his reign Akbar ruled over Kabul, 
the Punjab, North-Western India, Western India and 
Central India. Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa were still 
independent under Daud Khan, a king of Afghan birth. 
Akbar determined that they should form part of his 
empire, and so he led his army to Patna. The city fell, 
and all Bihar became his. Daud was pursued as far 
as Cuttack, and Bengal too acknowledged the rule of 
Akbar. Daud again revolted in 1577, was put to death, 
and Orissa passed into Akbar's hands. Revolts, how- 
ever, took place in this and in various other parts of the 
country till 1580 ; but from that date till 1586 there was 

practically, peace within 
the empire. Akbar next 
took Kathiwar, Sindh 
and Kashmir. later on, 
in 1600, in order to 
secure his southern 
.,, , ^,,,, ,, ,• frontier, he annexed the 

Akbar s Gold Medal commemorating . ' 

the'Faii of Asirgarh. provmce of Kandcsh and 

a portion of Berar in 
the northern part of the Deccan. In Kandesh he 
captured the famous rocky fortress of Asirgarh, and in 
Berar, the celebrated stronghold of Ahmadnagar, where 
the warlike queen, Chand Bibi, made a stubborn resis- 
tance. In the closing years of his reign his son, Salim, 
afterwards known as the Emperor Jahangir, rebelled ; but 
was forgiven. Akbar died in 1605, ^^ ^^^^ ^g^ o^ ^3 years. 
Akbar was above all things bent upon consoHdating 
hisempire. He felt that, if there was ever , 

to be rest and peace in the land, there ary Sys^m and 
must be.only one master in it. He deter- Administpation 
mined to be that master. So he waged 



war on his neighbours, and annexed territory after 
territory, in order that he might ultimately establish 
peace. His possessions north of the Vindhya Range 
were divided into twelve provinces, each under a viceroy 
who was responsible solely to the emperor. Subordinate 
to the viceroy were local military officers, C3.\\ed fa i/jdars, 
who performed the duties of chiefs of police and of 
military commanders. The portion of the empire south 
of the Vindhya Range was similarly divided into six 
provinces. As soon as he gained a new tract of country 
he tried to win the good will of its people by respecting 
their religion, and by arranging marriages between the 
daughters of the conquered Houses and the princes ot 
his Court. To the influential men of newly-acquired 
countries were given important offices in the army and 
government. To surround himself with a body of loyal 
nobles, drawn from every race, he established a feudal 
aristocracy, called maasabdars. They enjoyed their 
salaries, or grants of lands, at the emperor's pleasure 
and in return rendered him military service. Moreover, 
the families of the conquered were not allowed to be 
sold into slavery. By such measures he converted 
enemies into allies, and robbed defeat of much of its 
bitterness. He withdrew the jiziya, and abolished all 
taxes on Hindu pilgrims, as well as all inland tolls. 
And although in courts of justice the law rested on the 
Q'ran, mercy always tempered justice. He tolerated all 
religions, for he felt that there was some truth in every 
Faith. He examined all creeds, and taking from each 
what he thought good and true, he made the Din-i-Ilahi, 
or the Divine Faith, of which he was the head. The 
learned in his court met week by week in the Ibadat 
Khana to discuss questions on religion, politics, and 
philosophy. Thus Akbar was far-sighted in his policy. 
Instead of driving his adversaries to desperation by the 
severity of his measures, he reconciled them to their 
defeat by letting them practise the religion and ^.ustoms 
of their forefathers so long as they recognised in him 


their sole and paramount ruler. And so successfully did 
he gain the loyal adherence of various castes and creeds, 
that during his reign India was free from foreign in- 
vasions and enjoyed a season of internal tranquillity. 

Akbar rewarded merit in Hindus no less than in 
Muhammadans. To Bhagwan Das, 
Man Singh, Todar Mall, Jhi Mall and Some celebrated 
Birbal— all Hindus-he gave high ^^^^^^^ Akbar's 
commands in his army and influential 
places at his court. Moreover, he encouraged learning. 
And during his reign such Sanskrit works as the Rama- 
yana and Mahabharata were translated into Persian. 
The two brothers, Faizi and Abul Fazl, were his intimate 
friends. Faizi was a poet, and had a valuable library of 
manuscripts. Abul Fazl wrote in the Akbar Namah, 
a history of Akbar's reign. Badauni wrote his 
Muntakhahah-ut-Tawariq which gives us an account of 
Akbar's religious views, as also sketches of the famous 
men of his reign. 

Akbar reformed the way in which the taxes of his 
empire were gathered. Before his reign 

it had been the rule for the governors cJ5<S^E!^ Revenue 

.11 /• , • ^ System, 

to gather the taxes or their own provin- 
ces, pay themselves and their army, and then send the 
balance to the emperor at Delhi. Under the advice of 
his great Hindu minister, Todar Mall, all taxes were 
now paid into the Royal Treasury at Agra, so that all 
payments might be made from there. The empire was 
divided into fifteen siibhas or provinces, each of which 
had a governor to maintain the peace, and a dizvan to 
^v.^/,j^ ^^-y-^ collect the re- 

/0i?'^*K. ^;^'|:Jl'^r%v. venue. That the 

•iiX^^^'^m Mf> ■■ might be fair, he 

'^q^jif}:^}^/ had the country 

'""^' -—-''/' . ^ ._, surveyed, and he 

' "ir' ' took rent in 

Akbar's Coin. money instead of 



in grain. The taxes and land revenue of 1594 gave him 
an income of ;^36,ooo,ooo which at the present rate of 
exchange is Rs. 545,000,000. 

Akbar attempted reforms also in social matters. 

He would not allow people to be tortured to extract a 

confession; he forbade animal sacrifices 

social Retorms. ^^^ ^j^.j^ marriage. He made widow- 

marriage lawful, and although he could not stop Sati, he 
commanded that the widow was not to be forced to 
burn herself with her husband's corpse. 

Jahang-ir, 1605-1628.— Salim, the favourite son of 
Akbar, succeeded his father, and assumed 

Nur Jahan!'^^^' ^^^^ ^^^'^ ^^ Jahangir, that is to say, the 
Conqueror of the World. He formed a 
striking contrast to his father, being wilful, indolent and 
self-indulgent. His temper was violent and uncertain. 
He was prone to be arbitrary. He was addicted to 
strong drink, but could abstain from it when occasion 
demanded sobriety. As he grew older and approached 
the end of his reign his habits improved. The change 
in his character was largely due to the influence which 
his beautiful wife, Nur Jahan (The Light of the World), 

had on him. For the 

Y/>i-'vl^X .'.^^>''f*/-'X greater part of his 

•fi^'^i^A ^/2^l<^^J>h feign, wiih the help 

of her brother, Asaf 
Khan, she practically 
ruled the empire. 
This was possible 

Coin of Jahangir and Nur Jahan. becaUSe Jahangir waS 

too fond of wine and 
too indolent to trouble himself with the weighty matters 
of government. He openly recognised his queen's share 
in the administration of affairs, by placing her name on 
the coins of the realm. In 1628 his revenue from land 
was Rs. 295,200,000. 

In 161 5 King James I. of England sent Sir Thomas 



Embassy of Sip Roe as ambassador to the Mughal 
Thomas Roe. court of Delhi. He was received with 
much courtesy by Jahangir, but he entirely failed in the 
object of his mission — to secure protection against the 
exactions of Mughal officials. 

Jahangir had sufficient good sense to continue his 
father's policy of religious toleration. On the whole the 
earlier part of his reign was peaceful and prosperous ; but 
later on the question of succession stirred up jealousy 
and hatred in his sons. 

aa*;i'^^. .^^^^.ir-ytf, 

The Taj Mahal. 

Shah Jahan, 1628-1658. — Shah Jahan, who suc- 
ceeded to the throne, was in the main 
a kind and just man. Throughout his Attempted Con- 
reign t'fle Deccan was disturbed bv wars T^®^^ o' the 
and rebellions. In 1635 he compelled 




Shah Jahan 
founds New Delhi 
and adorns Agra 
with noble Build- 

the Adil Sahi king of Bijapur to pay a large annual 
tribute, and a year later annexed the Nizam Shahi king- 
dom of Ahmadnagar, He then deputed his son, 
Aurangzeb, to wage war against Bijapur and Golkonda. 
Meanwhile the English, who had come in 1600, were 
extending their trade, and in 1640 they made a factory 
for themselves at Hughli. 

Shah Jahan was fond of pomp and show. He 
adorned Agra with many noble build- 
ings. He founded New Delhi, and 
there erected the Jumma Masjid — 
one of the largest and most beautiful 
mosques in Asia, the Diwan-i-Am, or 

Hall of Public 
Audience, and the 
Diwan-i-Khas or 
Hall of Private 
Audience. In the 
Divvan-i-Am he 
placed the famous 
Peacock throne. It 
was made of gold, 
and was set with 
so many precious 
stones that it was 
worth an enormous 
sum of money. It 
Masjid, and the Taj 

Jumma Masjid. 





in the Shah's palace at 
Agra he built the Moti 

The Taj is over the grave of his wife Mumtaj 
It is one of the most beautiful buildings in the 
world, being overlaid with white marble. In 1655 his 
land revenue yielded Rs. 450,000,000. 

When Shah Jahan became feeble through old age, 

he practically retired from public life 

hilsol^r ^"^°°^ and committed public affairs to his 

eldest son, Dara. But this prince's 
brothers, Shuja, Aurangzeb, and Murad, were not 


prepared to let him ascend the throne without mak- 
ing a bid for it themselves. Murad proclaimed 

hmiself king in 

Gujarat, and with ' 

the assistance of 
Aurangzeb routed 
the imperial forces 
near Ujjain. But 
Aurangzeb all the 
time had his own 
scheme in hand. 
He suddenly made 
Murad captive ; 
seized the palace ; 
placed himself on 
the throne ; and 
sent his aged father. Shah Jahan, to prison, where he 
was kindly treated till his death in 1666. Dara and 

iMurad were put 

fujvJUdi^^^: to death. Shuja, 
" '- — ^^.j^Q during the 

scrimmage for 
supreme power 
had declared him- 
self king in 
Bengal, was de- 
feated at Agra, 


Gold Coin of Shah Jahan. 

— __Q.„ 

and escaping to Arakan was never heard of again. 
Having thus established himself upon the throne, 
Aurangzeb removed the capital of his empire from Agra 
to New Delhi. 

A French Doctor, Francois Bernier, about this time 
resided at Delhi where he was physician 
to the Emperor Aurangzeb. He Bernier. 

travelled from place to place, and on 
his return to Europe he published an account of all he 
had seenlduring his stay in India, and a full and graphic 
description of the Courts of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb. 







Aupang-zeb (op Alamg-ir I), 1658-1707— As a 

young man Aurangzeb had taken a con- 
spicuous part in his father's government. Aurangzeb's 
When only eighteen years old he had jahan's" G^o^v^^ 
been employed as governor of the Dec- ernment. 
can ; but he had resigned the appoint- 
ment to become a hermit. The attractions of asceticism, 
however, had quickly faded, and within a year he had 
re-entered his father's service as governor of Gujarat. 
Then from 1647 to 1652 he had been engaged in expedi- 
tions into Balkh and Kandahar. The campaigns, though 
unsuccessful, had afforded him a military training, in 
consequence of which he had next been set to the task 
of reducing the kingdoms of Golkonda and Bidar in the 
Deccan. In this he succeeded, being helped by Mir 
Jumla the Wazir of Golkonda. He was occupied with 
the conquest of Bijapur, the capital of the Adil Shahi 
kingdom, when his father's illness compelled him to 
leave it to the tender mercies of Sivaji, in order that he 
himself might enter upon the fratricidal struggle which 
gave him the throne. 

Encouraged by the withdrawal of the Mugnal troops 
from Bijapur, Sivaji became more daring, 
and beiran to raid even the emperor's War with the 

IVi 51 r'Ji^nJ-iQ in 

territories in the Deccan. Success smil- ^^^ Deeean. 
ed upon him for a time. He defeated 
Aurangzeb's army at Poona, and requited his known 
bigotry by sacking Sarat, "the Gate of Pilgrimage to 
Mecca." " But eventually the tide of war turned against 
the Maratha chieftain, and he had to sue for peace. He 
surrendered several of his forts, and his professions of 
submission were rewarded with the vicero\ alty of the 
Deccan. He actually proceeded to Delhi to pay homage 
to the Emperor. But Aurangzeb treated him slight- 
ingly, and the "mountain rat" in indignation escaped to 
his fort in the Western Ghats, more determined than 
ever to Ife an implacable enemy. He accordingly re- 
sumed hostilities, and so prospered, that the Emperoi 


was compelled to acknowledge him as a Raja, and to 
pacify him with an extensive /a^/r in Berar. But the 
love of adventure and plunder was too strong in Sivaji 
for him long to lead a peaceful life. He soon summoned 
his followers and pillaged Surat, Khandesh, and Broach, 
enriching himself with chant {ie., one-fourth of the 
revenues) as he went along. Death, however, now cut 
short his career, and his son, Sambhaji continued to 
harass the Mughal Emperor. Aurangzeb finally decided 
that his own presence in the Deccan was needed before the 
Marathas could be repressed, and so he proceeded thither 
to take command of his troops. He pursued his enemies 
through the Konkan. But it was not of much use. The 
Marathas never fought a pitched battle. Their plain was 
suddenly to fall upon unsuspecting foes, scatter them, 
and overspread the country, burning, pillaging and des- 
troying all that came in their way. As unexpectedly as 
they appeared so suddenly they dispersed, and gathered 
again in their mountain recesses. Deprived of all means 
of direct retaliation, Aurangzeb decided upon crippling 
their resources by annexing Golkonda and Bijapur which 
paid them tribute. Both kingdoms were accordingly 
annexed, and their Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi dynasties 
came to an end. The Maratha cause was not now 
prospering ; but worse was in store, for in 1689 Sambhaji 
fell into the Emperor's hands, and was put to death. 
Still the Marathas were far from cr\ished. For seventeen 
years longer they continued to be i thorn in Aurangzeb's 
side, and, indeed, when he died in 1707 he was still in 
harness, vainly trying to hunt them down iVom their rocky 
retreats. It was during this struggle, in 1690, that he 
granted the English land at Sutanati, our modern Calcutta. 
As will presently be more fully explained, Aurangzeb 
was a bigoted V. uhammadan. His 
Rajput Revolt, persecution of the H. ndus alienated them 
. from him, and dro^e the Rajputs into 

rebellion. Not satisfied with re-imposing the ^Jiziya, in 
his fanatical zeal for the spread of his own Faith, he 


attempted to get possession of the two sons of Jeswant 
Singh, the Rajput Maharaja of Marwar. He wished to 
have them educated at Delhi, and presumably brought 
up as Musalmans. The Rajputs were infuriated at this, 
and not only refused to pay the tax, but also hid the 
princes. Thereupon Aurangzeb marched upon Raj putana, 
where the states of Udaipur (Mewar) and Jodhpur 
(Marwar) offered him armed resistance. What made 
their opposition the more bitter was that the Emperor's 
son, Akbar, joined them. But Aurangzeb contrived to 
make it appear that the prince was a traitor in their 
camp, and the luckless youth, thus outwitted by his 
father, had to seek safety in flight to the Deccan. The 
Delhi army ravaged Udaipur ; but, as all his attention 
was called for in the Deccan, Aurangzeb willingly made 
peace. No treaty, however, could heal the wounded 
feelings of the Rajputs, and all Rajputana — save only 
Jaipur which had sided with the Emperor — continued 
in a state of perpetual revolt even long after Aurangzeb's 

To understand Aurangzeb's statemanship it is neces- 
sary to remember that he was an in- 
tolerant Muhammadan of the Sunni Charaeter and 
sect. He was a pronounced Image- Aurangzeb.^ 
Breaker, and the relentless persecutor of 
all who belonged to a different Faith. The result was 
that his religious zeal wrecked his kingdom. Instead 
of adopting the conciliatory policy of Akbar, or the 
good-natured indifference of Jahangir, or the splendid 
magnificence of Shah Jahan, he pulled down Hindu 
temples, and on their sites, and with their materials, he 
raised Muhammadan mosques. Not satisfied with this 
assertion of his own rehgion, he revived the hated jiziya, 
and re-imposed taxes on Hindu pilgrims. In 1697 his 
revenue, from all sources, amounted to Rs. 1,350,000,000. 
The strength of Akbar's government lay in his policy of 
uniting* naturally hostile elements into a peaceful 
organism. Aurangzeb began the disintegration of the 




Mughal dynasty by resolving that organism once more 
into its antagonistic constituents. A contemporary 
Muhammadan historian wrote: "Every plan that he 
formed came to little good; every enterprise failed" — 
failed because the Emperor had not the good will of his 
subjects. When he lay dying there was disorder in the 
north ; the Marathas were making a desert of the Deccan ; 

the Rajputs were in 




Aurangzeb's Coin. 

open rebellion ; the 
Jats had taken up 
arms near Agra ; the 
Sikhs were turbulent 
in Multan ; and the 
imperial army was 
ready to mutiny for 
arrears of pay. He 
meant to be a righteous and impartial ruler, but he was 
blinded by his bigotry. He trusted no one ; and no one 
loved him. He was obliged to protect himself by 
maintaining a large standing army, and by surrounding 
himself with a host of civil officers and retainers, who 
owed their all to him. And even in this his method 
differed from Akbar's policy. Whereas the latter had 
secured the loyal adhesion of Hindu Chiefs and nobles 
by giving them responsible and honourable posts in his 
army and government, Aurangzeb showered his favours 
only upon Muslims of low and obscure origin. He 
made them jnmisabdars or Amirs, and gave them grants 
of land and handsome incomes. In return they were 
bound, in feudal fashion, to supply the Emperor with 
soldiers in time of war : otherwise they were free to do 
their own pleasure. With no restraining power to hold 
them in check, they exacted money from their hapless 
tenants, whom they cruelly oppressed. The peasants 
and labouring classes lived in constant fear. They 
buried their money ; wore scanty clothing ; and lived in 
mean dvvelhngs so as not to excite the greed of the 
Amir who ruled them. And thus it was that while the 


Emperor piously dispensed strict justice at Delhi, cor- 
ruption and misery prevailed in the land. The empire 
had not fixed its roots in the hearts of the people. It 
could have no stability, and it had none. By an iron 
will Aurangzeb, the most powerful of all the Mughals, 
had ruled over more extensive possessions and com- 
manded larger armies than Akbar ; but when he died, 
the empire, which had already in his old age begun to 
slip from his hands, passed to a line of degenerate suc- 
cessors who had not that genius which alone could save 
it from ruin. 

The death of Aurangzeb was as usual the signal for 
rivals to contend for the vacant throne. 
Muazzam brushed aside his younger J"^®. Emperors 
brothers and had himself crowned as Bahadur Shah^ 
Bahadur Shah. But he had entered 
upon a thorny way. He had to deal with the Marathas, 
who were still warring in the Deccan. But they were 
not now united, for a rivalry had sprung up among them 
for the chief Command. One of the claimants to that 
distinction, Sahu, son of Sambhaji, was a captive of the 
Mughals. Bahadur Shah restored him to liberty on the 
condition that he would not disturb the peace of Delhi ; 
and the Marathas in fighting out their own differences 
ceased to be a danger to the empire. Bahadur Shah 
next pacified the Rajputs, and for the time being checked 
the Sikhs who, to avenge the murder of Guru Govinda 
Singh at the Mughal court, now raided the Punjab as 
far as Lahore and Delhi. He was succeeded by jahan- 
dar, Farukhsiyar, and Muhammad Shah (1719-1748). 
But they were mere tools in the hands of two nobles, 
the Sayyid brothers, Abdulla and Husain Ali, who 
played the part of King-Makers. Meanwhile the empire 
was crumbling to pieces. 

Of the provinces that had been taken by the Mu- 
ghals, the Deccan and Oudh were the 
first to free themselves of the Delhi Jf the Mughal 
court. From 1720- 1748, the Deccan Empire, 


was ruled over by the Nizam-ul-Mulk, while the 
governor of Oudh made himself master of Oudh 
(1732-1743). The Sikhs had already tried to throw off 
the yoke (1710-1716), but had failed. However, Raj- 
putana and Jodhpur became free by 1750. Sahu, the 
grandson of Sivaji, strengthened himself in the fort of 
Satara, and wrung chaut and sirdesmukhi from the 
Deccan, Gujarat, Malwa (1743), and Orissa (1751), and 
tribute from Bengal (1751). 

The Mughal Empire which had been much weak- 
ened by these losses, now received a 
Nadtr^Shah death-blow from enemies that came from 

other lands. The first of these was 
Nadir Shah of Persia. He made up his mind to enrich 
himself by robbing the Mughals at Delhi. Getting his 
soldiers together, he marched through the mountain 
passes into the Punjab without meeting with any oppo- 
sition till he reached Kurnal, when he defeated the 
Mughal troops (1738), and obtained the surrender of 
Muhammad Shah. He made this Emperor, a grandson 
of Bahadur Shah, join him and march with him to Delhi. 
Its citizens created a riot and killed some of the Persian 
troopers. Nadir thereupon let his soldiers massacre 
the inhabitants of Delhi, and the Emperor's money and 
jewels, the glorious peacock throne, the wealth of the 
nobles, and the goods of the common people were 
plundered. Nadir had now gained his object, and, that 
being so, he was willing to return with the booty he had 
taken. But before leaving India he made a show ot 
being very kind to Muhammad. He made a treaty 
with him, and put him on the throne of Delhi. He told 
the nobles that he would avenge any disloyalty to the 
Emperor whom he had set up. But he really wanted 
the Koh-i-Nur, a great diamond which Muhammad wore 
on his head ; and so he ended the farce of enthroning 
the unhappy Mughal by exchanging turbans with him. 
He then returned to Persia. *^ 

After a few years the Marathas revolted under 


Baji Rao. On his death, his work was 
carried on by his son, Balaji. The latter St chaut. 
took chaut from Bengal, and won Malwa 
(1743) and Orissa (1751) from the Mughals. In 1747 
Ahmad Shah Abdali, who ruled after Nadir Shah at 
Kandahar, made his first inroad into India, but was 
beaten off. In 1751 he again invaded 
Hindustan, and took the Punjab from Invasions of 
his namesake, the Emperor Ahmad Shah. ^gjg? ^^^^ 
The Rohillas rose against the latter and 
defeated his forces. Then he was dethroned (1754), and 
Alamgir II was crowned in his stead. In 1757 Delhi 
was again sacked by Ahmad Shah, and now, in 1759, 
Alamgir II was murdered by his wazir, Ghaziuddin. In 
his fourth invasion (1759J Ahmad Shah 
Abdali carried off whatever wealth Nadir Closing yeaps 
Shah had left. After which he returned Emjip^e 
home, having shattered the Mughal Em- 
pire. The Marathas meanwhile had conquered a portion 
of Northern India, and had taken Delhi. Ahmad Shah 
Abdah, however, led a large army of forty-thousand 
Afghans against them. The two armies met at Panipat 
(1761), and the third battle of that name was fought. 
The Maratha Confederacy was signally defeated. Ahmad 
Shah Abdah then returned to Afghanistan, leaving 
Ghaziuddin to rule for him at Delhi, and the true heir to 
the Mughal throne, Shah Alam II, was sent into exile. 
Meanwhile the British, under CHve, had gained power 
in the land. In 1765 Shah Alam II had granted the East 
India Company the Diwini of Bengal and Bihar, and had 
placed himself under British protection. Till 1 771 he 
lived at AUahadad as their pensioner. He then allied him- 
self with the Marathas, who restored to him part of his 
kingdom. But they really kept him prisoner at Delhi 
till Lord Lake broke their power in the Second Maratha 
War, and set the captive emperor at liberty. He was 
given a pension which was continued to his son Akbar 
II and to his grandson Muhammad Bahadur Shah. Akbar 


II reigned only in name from 1806 to 1837. His successor, 
Muhammad Bahadur Shah, the last of Timur's line, 
joined the rebels in the Sepoy Mutiny ("1857), and 
was exiled to Rangoon, where he died in 1862, Thus 
ends the history of the once glorious Empire of Delhi. 

Section II. 
The Rise and the Fall of the Marathas. 

WHILE Shah Jahan reigned at Delhi, the Marathas 
were growing into power. In chapter VI they 
have been referred to under their original 
name Rathiyas. They lived in the table- Marathas. 
lands of the Deccan, and on the moun- 
tains and plains of the Konkan. But their dominions 
expanded until they included Orissa, Malwa, Nagpur, 
Kandesh, the Berars, the Nizam's Dominions, and the 
Konkan from Goa to the Gulf of Cambay. They had been 
subdued by the early Muhammadan invaders of India, 
and from the reign of Akbar to that of Aurangzeb part 
of Maharashtra was subject to the Mughal Empire, 
while the rest of it was ruled over by the Muhammadan 
kings of Ahmadnagar and Bijapur. They became power- 
ful under Shaji Bhonsla, a daring chief who owned forts 
at Poona and Junir. In 1634 he aided Ahmadnagar and 
Bijapur against the Mughals. His son, Sivaji, succeeded 
him ; and by his talents as a soldier, he made the Mughals 
respect the Marathas. 

Sivaji was born in 1627. From his very boyhood he 
joined in plunder and bloodshed. At the Sivaii 

age of sixteen he was already the leader 
of a band of robbers, and had set himself to repair his 
father's mountain forts. From these he used to attack the 
dwellers of the plains, plunder them, or take chant and 
tribute, and then return to his mountain fastnesses. The 
Sultan of Bijapur at last sent a powerful army under Afzal 
Khan against him. Sivaji pretended to be humbled. He 
begged for pardon, and promised to become an ally. He 
asked ^r a friendly meeting with Afzal Khan, so that 
he might make peace with him. The General fixed the 



time and place of meeting. Sivaji came to the spot at 
the right time. He 
assumed penitence : 
but while speaking 
to him, he sudden- 
ly killed Afzal Khan 
with a weapon 
which he had hid- 
den in his clothes. 
Without delay the 
Marathas fell on 
the soldiers of 
Bij apur, and, 
having no leader, 
they were beaten. 
In 1 664 Sivaji sack- 
ed Surat. Two 
years later he made 
himself Raja, and 
began to coin 
money. But the 
tide of war turned 
against him ; he 
lost several of his 
fortresses, and was 
glad to come to 
terms with Aurang- 
zeb. He went to Delhi to pay homage to the Emperor 
who had made him Viceroy of the Deccan. But when 
he got there, he found that he was really a prisoner. 
He, however, contrived to escape, and raised a revolt in 
the Deccan. After giving much trouble to the Mughals 
he went back to his capital at Rajgarh. Here he 
enthroned himself with great pomp. He weighed 
himself against gold, and divided the precious metal 
among the Brahmans of his court. The English sent 
him costly gifts from Bombay, and, when he raided the 
Kamatic in 1675, the French paid him a large sum of 

Sivaji's Fort at Rajgarh. 

Sec. II.] THE MARATHAS. 1 29 

money to be left in peace. The last years of his reign 
were spent in fighting for, or against, the Mughals accord- 
ing as it suited him. He died in 1680, and was succeed- 
ed by his son, Sambhaji, (1680-1689), who was a weak 
prince, and altogether unfit to rule. He was often 
at war with the Portuguese and the Mughals. At last 
he fell into the hands of Aurangzeb, who . 

put him to death. His son, Sahu, a child lahu, 
of six years, was kept captive till the death 
of Aurangzeb. He was then set free on promising not 
to take up arms against the Emperor (1707). He was 
crowned at Satara. But a childhood spent in the royal 
harem at Delhi, had taken away from him all manliness 
and love of power. Although he was Raja in name, all 
real power was in the hands of his Brahman minister, 
Balaji Vishwanath, who was called Peshwa. So power- 
ful did the Peshwa become, that in the reigns of the heirs 
of Sahu, the Peshwa's power passed from father to son. 
Sahu's generals gained much territory, but he himself 
went mad, and the Peshwa thenceforth appropriated the 
kingly functions. Finally, when Sahu died in 1748, his 
son was thrown into prison by the Peshwa, who moved 
the capital from Satara to Poona, and himself reigned 

Balaji Bishwanath, 1712-1721, was an exceedingly 
able man. It will be remembered that 
the six successors of Aurangzeb were The first Pesh- 
mere toys in the hands of two power- y&hwaliath. 
ful nobles, and were set upon the throne, 1712-1721, 
or removed from it as these pleased. 
Thus when Balaji Vishwanath took up the government 
for Sahu, Sayyid Husain Ali and Sayyid Abdullah were 
playing the part of "King-Makers" with respect to the 
Mughal Empire of Delhi ; and when they promoted 
Muhammad Shah to the throne in 171 9, they were 
opposed by a combination of other nobles. To Balaji 
Vishwanath this seemed a favourable opportunity to 


push forward Maratha interests, and he accordingly 
led an army to Delhi in support of Say y id Husain. 
In return, he received, in 1720, the right to chatit from 
the Deccan, and control of the districts from Poona to 

Baji Rao 1., 1721-1740, succeeded his father and 
acquired for himself the distinction of 
The Second being the greatest of all the Peshwas. He 
Rao 1 1721 to entered upon a war against the Emperor 
1740. Muhammad Shah, and wrested from 

him all Malwa and the tract of country 
between the Narbada and the Chambal. He overthrew 
the Nizam-ul-Mulk who came from the Deccan to the 
assistance of the Emperor, and made him pay a penalty 
of fifty lakhs of rupees. He then raised his hand against 
the Portuguese on the west coast, and took Bassein from 
them. His next effort was in the direction of winning 
the Deccan ; but its Nizam at Haidarabad was more 
than a match for him, and he was obliged to come to 
terms with him. 

Balaji Baji Rao, 1740-1761, occupied his years of 
office with three wars — two against Salabat Jang, the 


Balaji Vishwanath, ist Peshwa. 

Baji Rao I,, 2nd Peshwa. 

Balaji Baji Rao, 3rcl Peshwa. Raghoba, 

II I .. 

Viswas Rao Madhu Rao, Narayan Rao, Baji Rao II., 

(Slain at Panipat). 4th Peshwa. 5th Peshwa, 7th Peshwa, 

I I 

Madhu Rao Narayan, "Nana Sahib 

6th Peshwa. (Adopted Son). 

Sec. II.] THE MARATHAS. 13! 

Nizam of Haidarabad, and the third 
against the Afghan invader, Ahmad ^^^^ "^B^j^^Ba^l 
Shah Abdah. In the first of these wars Rao. 1740 to 1761. 
the Nizam, with the help of French 
troops under Bussy, defeated the Marathas ; but in the 
end the Nizam had to cede much territory to the 
Peshwa. Eight years later Salabat Jang attempted to 
take Ahmadnagar from the Marathas ; but his expedi- 
tion failed, and he suffered a severe defeat at Udgir, and 
lost to the enemy all the north-western portion of his 
kingdom. Meanwhile the Peshwa's brother, Raghoba, 
invaded the Punjab (1758) which the Afghan king, 
Ahmad Shah Abdali, had recently wrested from the 
Mughal emperor. The several Maratha chiefs, who had 
combined, as will be presently detailed, into a powerful 
confederacy with the Peshwa as its head, stood by 
Raghoba. The anger of Ahmad Shah Abdali was 
roused, and he came with a powerful army to punish the 
insolence of the Marathas. The Peshwa was down in 
the South fighting with the Nizam, and so Ahmad Shah 
had no difficulty in defeating the combined forces of 
Sindhia and Holkar m the Third Battle of Panipat, 1761. 
But the Maratha chiefs made another and more 
determined effort to withstand the invader, and secured 
the assistance of 200,000 Pindaris. It was, however, of 
no avail. They experienced a still more signal defeat, 
and their prospects of becoming the paramount power 
in India were considerably diminished. 

In the preceding paragraph mention has been 
made of a confederacy of Maratha chiefs. They were : 

1. The Peshwa, whose capital was at Poona. He 
made himself supreme in Satara and Kolhapur 
where the descendants of Sivaji 

held nominal sway. The Treaty confeSey.^ 
of Bassein in 1802, and the annexa- 
tion of Satara by Lord Dalhousie in 1848, put 
9ii end to the House of the Peshwas. 

2. Sindhia, Raja of Gwaliar. 


3. Holkar, Raja of Indore, and a rival of Sindhia. 

4. Bhonsla, Raja of Berar, the Karnatic and Orissa. 
His capital was at Nagpur in the Central Provinces. 
His kingdom was annexed by Lord Dalhousie in 


5. Damaji Gaekwar, Raja of Baroda. 

A short account may here be given of how these chiefs 
came into existence. It has been seen that the Peshwa 
Balaji Vishwanath supplanted the House of Sivaji. By 
the time Balaji Baji Rao ruled at Poona four viceroys 
had been appointed to collect the revenues of Berar, 
Gujarat and Malwa. But the temptation to rule in their 
own rights was too strong, and eventually Sindhia and 
Holkar, dividing Malwa between them, became in- 
dependent rulers at Gwahor and Indore. Similarly 
Bhonsla and Damaji Gaekwar set themselves upon the 
thrones of Berar and Gujarat. While professing allegi- 
ance to the Peshwa, they practically neglected to take 
him into account, and framed their own laws and entered 
upon hostilities with one another or their neighbours. 
Had these chieftains held together, they would have 
formed a powerful combination. But, unfortunately for 
the Maratha cause, they were jealous of one another, 
and often questioned even the supremacy of the 
Peshwa. A house divided against itself cannot stand, 
and the quarrels which the Maratha chiefs had among 
themselves ruined the national prospects. 

Madhu Rao 1761-1772 became Peshwa when 
he was only seventeen years of age. 
PeshwaTMadhu During his minority his uncle, Raghoba, 
Rao, 1761 to 1772, acted as his guardian. The greater 
part of his rule was taken up with suc- 
cessful wars against the Nizam of Haidarabad, the 
Bhonslas of Berar, and Haidar Ali, the Sultan of Mysore. 
During his time a very remarkable woman, Ahalya 
Bai of the family of Holkar, ruled at Indoive. For 
her commander-in-chief she had a talented soldier, 


Tukaji Holkar, whom she adopted as 

her son. She was alto^i^ether a model ^uouKfSL- „„h 

J , • J T 1 J. Analya Bai ana 

queen, and she raised indore to a posi- Tukaji Holkar- 

tion of honour among the Maratha States. 

She died in 1795, and is even now worshipped in 

Malwa as an incarnation of the Deity. 

Narayan Rao, 1772-1773, the younger brother 
of Madhu Rao, succeeded him. He 
was, however, murdered at the instance T^^ ^Nap^^an" 
of Ananda Bai, the ambitious wife of Rao. 1772-1773. 
Raghoba, who desired to see her hus- 
band installed as Peshwa. No sooner had Raghoba pro- 
claimed himself as such, than Nana Farnavis, one of the 
chief ministers at Poona, produced Madhu Rao Narayan, 
a posthumous son of Narayan Rao, and claimed the 
Peshwaship for him in 1774. There was immediately a 
division in the Maratha camp. Some of 
the chiefs disliked Raghoba and sup- Contact with 
ported the infant heir, while others of fn tlfe^FiiS 
them refused to believe that the child Maratha War. 
was really Narayan Rao's son, and pre- 
pared to support Raghoba, To settle the dispute, an 
appeal was made to arms, and civil war began — the First 
Maratha War. An account of the conflict will be given 
when we come to the administration of Warren Hastings. 
Suffice it here to say that at its conclusion, Madhu Rao 
Narayan was created Peshwa, and Raghoba was given 
a handsome pension. 

Madhu Rao Narayan, 1773-1795. Meanwhile the 
Maratha army, chiefly under the leader- -pj^g sixth Pesh- 
ship of Sindhia, had overrun Northern wa, Madhu Rao 
India, captured Delhi, and obtained pos- J^^^^^^"- ^'^'^S- 
session of the person of Shah Alam II., 
the Mughal Emperor, After this, Sindhia made him- 
self independent of the Peshwa. He, however, died in 
1794, and Nana Farnavis was left without a rival. This 


enabled him to turn his attention to the Nizam of 
Haidarabad, who had allowed his tribute to fall into 
arrears — the tribute he had arranged to pay after the 
the battle of Udgir. Nana Farnavis summoned the 
Maratha chiefs to assist him against the Nizam, and 
they loyally responded. The contending armies met at 
Kurdla, and the Nizam was entirely defeated. Madhu 
Rao Narayan did not long enjoy the watchful care of 
Nana Farnavis; for, giving vent to a fit of ungoverned 
anger because his whims were thwarted, he killed himself. 

Baji Rao II, the son of Raghoba, now became 

Peshwa, 1795. The jealousies of the 

The Seventh Maratha chiefs continued, and the 

fr®^?-^r'^^4'J!5° tendency now was to question the 

IL, 1795, and the ■' m d i \ j 

Second Maratha supremacy of the Peshwa. And so it was 

War. that Jeswant RaoHolkar, son ofTukaji 

Holkar, took up arms against both 
Sindhia and the Peshwa. In distress the latter appealed 
to the English for help, which was afforded him on his 
signing the Treaty of Bassein, 1802. The result was that 
the English were drawn into the Second Maratha War 
in which they fought against Daulat Rao Sindhia and 
Raghuji Bhonsla. The story of this war will be fully 
related when we come to deal with the adminstration of 
the Marquis of Wellesley. It is sufficient here to say that 
the Maratha chiefs \vere defeated, and that the third 
Maratha War completely wrecked their Confederacy. 

But in the Maratha Confederacy itself, there were 
internal causes which would eventually have wrought 
its ruin. Among these may be mentioned the action of 
Sindhia in making himself independent of the Peshwa, 
and indeed his rival. Another cause was 
Causes of the the struggle between Raghoba and Nana 
S°aratha°Con! Farnavis as to who should succeed 
federaey. Narayan Rao as Peshwa. A third cause 

was the civil war of Baji *Rao II, 
with Jeswant Rao Holkar and Daulat Rao Sindhia. 



A fourth cause lay in the circumstance that while the 
Peshwas were Brahmans, some members of the Confed- 
eracy were of lower caste. Finally, in the eyes of all 
India, he was paramount who had the Mughal Emperor 
for his prisoner. In 1795 the Marathas had had possession 
of his person ; but in the course of the Second Maratha 
War, 1803, Shah Alam II, fell into the hands of the 
English, and then it was that the last semblance of 
power deserted the Marathas. 

Before closing this chapter, some account must be 
given of the Maratha army and of the system of 
Maratha war, administration and revenue, which 
though devised by Sivaji was retained, with minor 
adaptations, by the Peshwas and by the several states 
that made up the Maratha Confederacy. 

The foundation of Sivaji's power was his infantry 
which numbered 50,000 men. They 
brought their own arms— a sword, a P® Maratha 
shield and a match-lock. Every tenth '"^' 
man carried a bow and arrows for night attack and 
surprises. Their only equipage was a single blanket 
and a small bag of parched grain. They mounted 
precipices, or scaled rocks which would defy others. 
They received from Rs. 3 to Rs. 10 a month. Above a 
series of subordinate officers there were captains of 
5000, who served under the commander-in-chief of 

The cavalry, presided over by its own commander- 
in-chief, was divided into three classes : — Bargis, whose 
horses were supplied by the State ; Silidars, who pro- 
vided their own horses ; and Pagahs, who were the 
chief's household troops. Their principal weapon was 
the spear. Camp equipage was unknown. At their 
saddles they carried a small bag for food and plunder. 
They were as hardy as their ponies, and often swept the 
country at the rate of from 50 to 80 miles in twenty- 
four hour% The chiefs and officers equally shared in 
the privations of their men. The latter were paid 


between Rs 7 and Rs 40 a month, and at the end of the 
year all accounts were made up, and payments due to 
soldiers were never allowed to fall into arrears. During 
the rains the cavalry retired to the fortresses where com 
and grass were stored by retainers, who enjoyed perma- 
nent assignments of rent-free land, which, together with 
the care of the forts, descended from father to son. 
The foot soldiers also went to their homes to cultivate 
their fields. While infantry and cavalry were thus resting 
from warfare, Sivaji prepared his plans for the operations 
of the coming year. At the Dussera festival the national 
flag was unfurled, and from all sides the soldiery once 
more swarmed to their chief. The Peshwa's forces 
mustered 60,000 all told. The contingents from the 
other states of the Confederacy augmented these numbers 
by an additional 50,000. But the Peshwa's army was 
called together only when he himself took the field. 
On his return to Poona, his troops were disbanded. 

The heights of the Western Ghats were crowned 
with numerous fortresses which could 

li^win^ ^^^^^^ be reached only by a narrow flight of 
01 wd,r. 1 /- 1 • 

steps, and from where an unseen garri- 
son could hurl down massive stones upon the enemy. 
Here the Maratha troops found safety when pressed by 
the foe. They made it a rule to avoid pitched battles. 
The infantry usually hovered on the skirts of an army or 
hung about a camp, and as opportunity offered they 
carried off provisions and treasure. While the foot- 
soldiers were thus tormenting the enemy, the light-horse, 
(some 7000 in strength in the days of Sivaji), scoured 
the plains, harrying and plundering peaceful villages in 
alien territory. At the first warning of an approaching 
army they galloped back to their fortresses in the hills 
and jungles. Or they assembled on particular points 
with secrecy, and having made a rapid foraj^ they 
dispersed, again to form a fresh combination and deliver 
an unexpected attack. Their movements weife so rapid 
that it was impossible for any force of regular cavalry 

Sec. II.] THE MARATHAS. 1 37 

to overtake or intercept them. When they could not 
avoid giving open battle, their common plan was to 
feign a retreat, and having by this artifice lured the 
enemy into an ambuscade, they completed their destruc- 
tion. Or while the foe was eagerly pursuing them, they 
suddenly turned and routed them before they could 
recover from their confusion. As Sivaji's cavalry and 
infantry were recruited from his own peasants, they 
were always available for a campaign, provided it was 
not seed-time or harvest. Thus Sivaji had command of 
a large body of fighting men, without being put to the 
expense of keeping a standing army. With them he 
swooped down upon his prey ; and exacted tribute, or 
extorted a heavy price for peace. From part of the 
plunder he paid off his followers, and keeping the lion's 
share for himself, he returned to his hill-fort. This 
system of warfare was peculiarly suited to the instincts 
of the Marathas and to the character of their country. 
By giving every soldier of whatever rank a personal 
interest in success, Sivaji cemented princes and people 
into a great brotherhood, which was not dissolved when, 
in later years, the chiefs of the Maratha Confederacy 
had no king over them, and when they were fighting 
with one another, or even with the Peshwa. 

The administrative unit of Sivaji was the fortress 
with its surrounding tract of country. 
The forts gave him a local foot-hold, of^^AdSimstra^ 
and a place wherein to deposit his tion. 
plunder. On the plains the village 
system prevailed, and the majority of cultivators were 
hereditary occupants, who could not be dispossessed so 
long as they paid their revenues. Each village was 
under a Fatal, who supervised the cultivation of fields, 
managed the police, collected the revenue, and arranged 
for the protection of his charge. Several Palais were 
grouped together and put in subordination to Deshadhi- 
karis or Deshpandias, whose office was hereditary. 
While Ihese officers held control over the Patals, they 



could not interfere with the general management of the 
country. Small districts were presided over by Taliik- 
dars. Subahdars held jurisdiction over bazar areas which 
contained one or more forts in which they deposited 
the grain and money, which their subordinates collected. 
To secure the ryots against unfair exactions, all village 
lands were divided into fields which were accurately 
entered into a register. 

To assist in the proper conduct of public affairs, 
Sivaji appointed various grades of officers ; and later on 
his gradation was, with a few necessary modifications, 
adopted by each of the chiefs of the Maratha Con- 
federacy. The following were the more important servants 
of the government : - 

(i) The Peshwa, or Prime minister. 

(2) The Mazhndar, or Auditor-General of Accounts 

and Superintendent of Finance. 

(3) The Commander-in-Chief of Cavalry. 

(4) The Commander-in-Chief of Infantry. 

(5) The Niadesh, or President of the Judiciary. 
Civil suits were tried by a Panchayat, or\oc?i\]Mxy. 

Disputes between soldiers were settled by their officers. 
The criminal laws were derived from the Shastras, and 
were administered by Mayisabdars and Siirsubahdars. 
The Raja or Chief was the final head of military and 
civil affairs. 

The Revenue of the Marathas was derived from 
alien territory in the shape of money 
of^Revenue^^^"^ exactions of tribute, and from the home- 
land in the shape of (i) land revenue 
(2) customs on imports and exports ; (3) miscellaneous, 
e.g., offerings of pilgrims, taxes on houses and pasturage, 
fines, etc. 

Of Maratha land the assessment of revenue was 
yearly calculated upon the actual condition of the crops. 
There was no permanent assessment, but annually the 
state took the money value of two-fifths of the har- 
vests. Sivaji set his face against jagir lands, and 

Sec. II.] THE MARATHAS. 139 

against the farming out of revenues to collectors. From 
non-Maratha countries chant, i.e., one-fourth of their 
gross revenues, was 3'early exacted as the price of their 
being left unmolested. The income thus derived went 
into the general funds of the state. But over and above 
this, sttrdeshmukhi, i.e., ten per cent, of the gross 
revenues was levied (particularly on the six subhas of 
the Deccan) and was assigned to the Raja himself. Plunder 
was the sole object of all military expeditions, and it 
was brought at stated periods to Sivaji's Durbar, where 
the men who had taken it were praised, rewarded or 
promoted. From it payments were made to those in 
the service of the government. But under the Peshwas, 
all military and civil servants were paid by permanent 
assignments on portions of the revenue of villages. 
With this modification the chiefs of the Maratha Con- 
federacy, as also the Peshwa, adopted the system of 
revenue collection and distribution which Sivaji had 
established ; and indeed, no better means could have 
been devised for holding together those upon whose 
combination and federation the integrity of the Maratha 
rule depended. 


Section III. 
The Sikhs. 

THE Sikhs were a sect of Jats whose early home was 
in the valley of the Indus. They trace their origin 
to Nanak, a celebrated Hindu reformer, 
the Sikhs^ °^ who was born in Lahore in 1469. They 
gradually spread over the Punjab and 
Rajputana, and pushed their colonies as far south as the 
Jumna. They still inhabit these parts. 

In all, they had ten Gurus, or temporal and spirit- 
ual leaders — Nanak being the first, and Govind Singh 

g G ■ d ^^^ ^^^^' ^^"^^ formulated the Sikh 
Faith, a refined type of Hinduism which 
was finally written into a book called the GraJith. 
Govind Singh was leader of the Sikhs from 1676 to 1708, 
durmg which time, by abolishing the distinction of caste, 
he welded them into a united body. He also gave 
them a military character, and established a Sikh 
common-wealth under the name of the Khalsa. 

The growing importance of the Sikhs alarmed the 
Emperor Aurangzcb, who, to satisfy him- 
Theip Perseeu- self of their attitude towards him, sum- 
Mug-half ^ moned Govind Singh to attend his court. 
After some hesitation the guru set out 
in obedience to the call, but in the meantime Aurangzeb 
died, and he presented himself before his successor, 
Bahadur Shah. He was received with much distinction ; 
but was suddenly assassinated by a Pathan. This act 
of treachery exasperated the Sikhs, and they determined 
to avenge their leader's death. By capturing Sirhind, 
and ravaging the country up to Lahore, they brought 
Bahadur Shah into the field against them. But after six 
years of fighting they scattered, and took refuge in the 
hills and jungles. This period of depression, however, 

Sec. III.] THE SIKHS. 141 

was not without its advantages, for during it they per- 
fected a mihtary system by organising themselves into 
Confederacies, or Missils, each under its 
own Sardar. Theoretically anyone could The Missils. 
win his way to a sardarship ; but in 
course of time the office became hereditary. And so 
what had originally been a brotherhood of co-ordinate 
Missils, became a military aristocracy, in which all influ- 
ence and power continued in the hands of a few chiefs, 
until Ranjit Singh, in 1800, brushed aside his rival sardars 
and established a monarchy in which he was the sole 

It has been related above that for a number of years 
the Sikhs found refuge in retirement ; 
but when Nadir Shah was returning Their struggle 
home from the sack of Delhi, in 1738, shlh Abdafif 
they emerged from their obscurity, fell 
on the rear of his army, and carried off much plunder 
with which they replenished their empty coffers. When 
the subsequent invasions of the same Shah, had to a large 
extent undermined the Mughal Empire, they gathered 
from all quarters at Amritsar, and became aggressive 
toward their no longer prosperous enemy. The Mughal 
viceroy of Lahore, therefore proclaimed a general 
massacre of the Sikhs, and thousands of them were put 
to death. The Mughals, however, had to stay their 
arm, for between the years 1748 and 1756, Ahmad Shah 
Abdali made a series of incursions which designed the 
final overthrow of the Empire of Delhi. The Sikhs 
made no distinction between Afghan and Mughal, and 
defeating Ahmad Shah's troops at Lahore (1758) they 
declared the Khalsa an independent state. Taking 
advantage of Ahmad Shah's withdrawal to his own 
kingdom, the Mughals, assisted by the Marathas, tried 
to recover the Punjab. Ahmad Shah immediately re- 
turned to Drevent this, and inflicted a severe defeat on 
the Marathas, in the Third Battle of Panipat, 1761. 
Finding that the Afghans and Mughals were bent on 


each other's destruction, the Sikhs became more daring. 
They occupied Sirhind and other fortresses belonging to 
the Afghans : but Ahmad Shah soon rescued Sirliind 
from them and destroyed Amritsar, their Holy City. 
They however rallied ; regained man)^ of the strong- 
holds that had been wrested from them ; and took pos- 
session of the tract of country between the Jumna and 
the Sutlej. This brought Ahmad Shah once more into 
India. But the Sikhs having found that they were no 
match for Afghan armies in an open field, were now 
careful not to allow themselves to be drawn into battle. 
Ahmad himself was tired of an ineffective warfare. 
Besides this, news reached him of disturbances in 
Kabul, and he diplomatically acknowledged the Sikh 
Chief of Patiala as his local Governor. But no sooner 
had he departed to Kabul, than the Sikhs captured 
Lahore, seized all the country between the Sutlej 
and the Jhelum, and proclaimed the Khalsa to be the 
Dominant Power in the Punjab. They now ruled 
from the Jumna to the Jhelum. In the face of these 
events Ahmad Shah determined in 1767 to make a final 
attempt to crush the irrepressible Sikhs. He succeeded 
in checking the Khalsa army on the banks of the Sutlej ; 
but failing health compelled him to adopt a policy of 
conciliation, and he set up the Chief of Patiala as the 
ruler of Sirhind. But the Sikhs were not deceived. In 
this apparent kindness they saw a proof that the Punjab 
was slipping out of Afghan hands, and no sooner had 
Ahmad Shah crossed the Indus, they took posses- 
sion of Lahore and Rhotas. Although from this time 
they suffered no more persecution and were accounted 
one of the great powers in the land, they could not yet 
put off their armour. For when Ahmad Shah died in 
1773, his son and successor, Timur Shah, drove them 
from Multan ; and when twenty years later Shah Zaman 
was king of Kabul, he recovered Lahore from them. He 
might have had larger successes, but the turbulence of his 
own subjects in Afghanistan compelled him, in 1798, to be 

Sec. III.] THE SIKHS. 143 

content to receive merely the homage of the Sikh sardars, 
and to appoint Ranjit Singh, as governor of Lahore. 

Ranjit Sing-h, the national hero of the Sikhs, was 
born in 1780. While he was still a child p ... „. . 
he lost an eye from small-pox. On the **^"^^^ ''^"^^• 
death of his father in 1792 he succeeded to the sardar- 
ship of his Missil, but was under guardians till he was 
seventeen years old. He had been ruling in his own right 
only one year, when, as has been related. Shah Zaman made 
him Governor of Lahore. He soon proved that he was a 
born leader of men, and steadily grew in influence and 
popularity. This excited the envy of rival sardars, and a 
coalition was formed against him. In 1800 he brushed 
aside his enemies, and assuming the title of Maharajah, 
began to mint money in his own name. But a one-man- 
rule was contrary to the traditions of the Sikhs, and the 
sardars of the Cis-Sutlej States of Patiala, Jhind, and 
Nabha protested against the usurpation of the kingly rank 
by Ranjit Singh. In 1 806, he crossed the Sutlej with the 
intention of compelling the refractory chiefs to acknow- 
ledge him as their king. They appealed to the English 
for. protection, on the plea that inasmuch as the Mara- 
thas under Holkar had receded from their possessions 
in Northern India, on the termination of the Second 
Maratha War, in 1803, the parts of the country inhabited 
by them was under British influence. Lord Minto, who 
was Governor-General, accordingly sent an envoy to La- 
hore, with the result, that Ranjit Singh let the Cis-Sutlej 
Sikh chiefs alone, and undertook to regard the river as 
the eastern boundary of his kingdom. 

Ranjit Singh's reign was one protracted campaign 
for the consolidation of his power. His ambition there- 
fore was to maintain a well trained army. In order to 
improve the efficiency of his troops he appointed Euro- 
pean officers to command them. Through the services 
of his_ soldiery he converted the Afghan Governor of 
Pesha^'ar into a vassal, and by 1831 he had brought 
into subjection the Muhammadan provinces of Multan, 


Kashmir, the Rajputana hill states, and a number of 
minor independent chiefs. He now ruled over territories 
extending from the hills beyond the Indus to Ladak in 
Tibet, and from the northern banks of the Sutlej to 
Kashmir. On three sides his possessions touched those 
of the English. With the latter he found it prudent to 
live on good terms, so much so, that he joined them when 
it was found expedient to eject Dost Muhammad of Af- 
ghanistan, and restore their lost kingdom to the Duranis. 
But while the war was in progress he died in 1839. 

On the death of Ranjit Singh, many princes in quick 
succession filled his throne, but met 
with violent deaths. The army of the SXeKTalJa 
Khalsa usurped all power, and did as Army, 
its leaders pleased. At last, in 1843, 
Ranjit Singh's youngest son, Dhulip Singh, a boy of ten, 
was given the crown with his mother as Queen-Regent, 
and with the chief sardars as his Council of State or 

But the palmy days of the Sikhs were now a thing 
of the past. It is true that they had triumphed over 
Moslem and Maratha, and had founded a mighty kingdom 
in the Punjab. But about this time they came into 
conflict with the English, and their great bravery was 
of no avail against the superior discipline and equipments 
of British troops. As will be seen, later on, they were 
defeated in the First and Second Sikh Wars, and their 
kingdom was finally absorbed into the British Empire. 


The Early Period of the Company : 

Section I. 

The First European Settlers. 

J4g8 — lySs A.D. 

IN some of the preceding chapters, mention has been 
made of certain European nations, from which it 
will have been inferred that they were already in the 
country. It is now time to relate when and why they 

In very early times, India was known to Europe. 
The Romans traded with it, and the 
fn Sty Siys^^^ Greeks, as we have seen, actually in- 
vaded it. Alfred the Great of England 
sent a nobleman of his court as an ambassador to one of 
its princes. But Europe was so far from India, and 
navigation was so full of danger, that it was no easy 
matter for trade to be carried on between the two Be- 
sides this, the nations of Europe were so occupied with 
their own wars, and other affairs, that they did not have 
the desire or the opportunity to trade. But when, at 
the close of the fifteenth century, people had recovered 
from the strain of constant warfare, a great wish filled 
the minds of many in Western Europe to find a way to 
India by sea. 

In 1497, under the patronage of King John II of 
Portugal, Vasco da Gama tried to reach 
^^I ^^E^"^"®^® India by sailing round the Cape of Good 
Hope. This he accomplished in 1498, 
landing at Calicut. Here he was kindly received by the 
Zamorin, or Hindu Raja, and returned to Portugal with 
a rich car^o of spices and precious stones. Encouraged 
by these results, the King of Portugal, in 1500, sent a 


large fleet on the same errand, under Pedro Alvares 
Cabral. He effected a safe landing, and established a 
factory or agency at Calicut, for the sale of Portuguese 
wares and the purchase of Indian commodities. It 
ought to be noticed that, at this time, the bulk of Indian 
trade was in the hands of the Muhammadans, or Moplas, 
as they were called. Naturally they resented the arrival 
of the Portuguese, in whose favour part of the commerce 
of the coast began to be diverted. They used their 
influence with the Zamorin so successfully that, when 
Vasco da Gama revisited India in 1502, this king quar- 
relled with him. But Vasco da Gama made allies of the 
Rajas of Cochin and Cannanore, and with their assistance 
he defeated his former friend in battle. The King of 
Portugal did not approve of what Vasco da Gama 
had done, and recalled him from India, replacing him, 
in 1505, by Francisco d' Almeida, under the name 
and style of Governor and Viceroy of the Portuguese in 
India. Almeida carried on a profitable trade for his 
master ; and when he returned home, Alfonso d' 
Albuquerque filled his place. The latter was a very 
successful ruler, and having won Goa for Portugal in 
1510, he died there five years latter (1515). After a 
lapse of nine years Vasco da Gama was again sent out 
to be Viceroy ; but he died at Cochin in the following 
year (1525). 

By this time the Portuguese owned many towns on 
the coast from Diu in Gujarat to Quilon. 
Possesions. ^^^^ chief of these were Bassein, Bombay, 
Goa, Mangalore, Cannanore, Cranganore, 
Calicut, and Cochin. Besides these, St. Thom6 and 
Masulipatam, and Negapatam, all on the East Coast, 
were theirs, as also was a large part of Ceylon. Their 
chief port was Diu, and Goa was their capital. Not 
satisfied with these possessions, they warred against 
Gujarat and Malabar, and entered Sindh in 1556. But 
they had no success. In 1560 an Archbishop was sent 
to Goa, and from this time the Portuguese tried to 


convert the people of the country to Christianity. They 
were very cruel to those who would not accept this 
religion, and so they began to be hated by both Hindus 
and Muhammadans. This hatred was one of the causes 
of their downfall in India. Another cause, was the 
arrival of the Dutch and the English in 1600. 

Like the English, the Dutch at first tried to reach 
India by passing through Behring Straits. 
But in this they failed. Cornelius Hout- i^dia 
mann then, in 1596, attempted the south- 
ern route ; but landed at Bantam in Java. From this place 
he carried home a cargo of spices. He made another 
expedition in 1599, and with the help of the natives he 
took away from the Portuguese several of their towns 
m the Molucca Islands. The Dutch had previously con- 
quered a part of Ceylon, and became, by 1605, the 
greatest maritime nation on Indian waters. But the 
rivalry between them and the English in the Eastern 
Seas led to much fighting, and they eventually massacred 
the English at Amboyna in 1623. This act of cruelty 
did not improve matters, and the two nations continued in 
open hostility until 1689, the year in which WiUiam of 
Orange became king of England. But long before this 
date the power of the Dutch in the East had been 
declining, chiefly through their greed and cruelty. 
Their hopes of an Indian Empire were put an end to by 
Clive, who, in 1758, took Chinsurah, their capital in 
Bengal, away from them. At present the Dutch own 
no lands in India. 

The British, as has been said, visited India in very 
early times. William of Malmsbury ^ ,. , ,^ . 
records, that in 833 A.D. King Alfred f„"&VMTa''' 
sent Sighelmus, Bishop of Sherburn, 
to present gifts at the shrine of St. Thomas, near 
Madras, and that he came back with spices and gems. 
Then in 1496 John Cabot was sent to find a way to India ; 
but he*discovered Newfoundland instead. When Queen 
Mary came to the throne, she sent Sir Hugh Willoughby 


to see if he could get to India through Behring Straits. 
But he and his crew perished in the Arctic Seas. Fro- 
bisher, Davis, Hudson, and Baffin — all celebrated Eng- 
lish navigators — attempted the same voyage, but they 
met with no success. For a time people gave up the 
idea of reaching India by crossing the seas. It seemed 
easier to do so by land, through Persia. Accordingly in 
1583, John Nevvbery, William Leeds, and Ralph Fitch 
sailed to Syria by the Mediterranean Sea, and reached 
Ormuz by way of the Persian Gulf, Aleppo and Bagdad. 
Here they were thrown into prison ; but on being 
liberated, they sailed to Goa, the chief town of the 
Portuguese. At the last mentioned city they were cast 
into prison ; but escaping, they travelled over a great 
part of India. From Agra, Newbery went back to 
England, via Persia, Leeds, became jeweller to Akbar. 
Fitch visited Benares, Bhutan, Hugh, and Ceylon, and 
finally reached home in 1591. The accounts which he 
gave of all he had seen in India, of its wealth and plenty, 
quickened anew pubhc interest in that country, and 
without delay several ships, under the guidance of 
Lancaster, were sent out round the Cape. Lancaster's 
expedition was a failure ; but Queen Elizabeth, in 1599, 
despatched John Mildenhall to the Emperor Akbar. 
Nothing was gained by his visit. Not to be beaten by 
these repeated failures, a Company — the great East India 
Company — was formed under royal charter in 1600. 
Lancaster again led a new fleet into Indian waters, and 
this time his perseverance was rewarded, for he went 
back with a rich cargo of calicoes and spices. 

Gratified by this success, the Directors of the East 
India Company sent out ships every year 
The East India till 16 10. The Dutch were, at this time, 
the^Duteh ^°^ ^^^ undisputed masters of the Eastern 
Seas, and they resented the intrusion of 
the English. They had already crushed the Portuguese, 
and they now entered upon active hostilities agamst the 
English. They met their ships at sea, and often captured 


them. King James I thought that it would be a great 
gain to enter into an alliance with the Mughal Emperor. 
And so, in 16 15, he sent Sir Thomas Roe as the English 
ambassador to Jahangir. The latter received the embassy 
kindly, but no practical good resulted. The ill-feeling 
between the English and the Dutch continued to grow, 
and culminated, as already stated, in the massacre of the 
English by the Dutch at Amboyna in 1623. 

But for all that the English Company went on 
prospering. It had a factory at Gom- 
broon, and another at Surat which be- fetUements 
came their capital. On the Coromandal 
Coast, factories had been estabhshed at Masulipatam, 
Puhcat, Armagaon,Pipli, and Madras (1639). In 1656 an 
English doctor cured the child of the Nawab of Bengal, 
and the grateful prince made a gift of Hughli to the 
Company. Then factories were set up at Patna and 
Casimbazar. In 1662 Charles II married Catherine of 
Braganza, and received Bombay as her dowry. In 1668 
he transferred it to the East India Compan}' , who made 
it their western capital. About this time the French 
came to trade in India, and leaving the history of the 
English for the present, let us turn to the new arrivals. 

The fact that the Portuguese, the Dutch and the 
English had established trade with India, 
could not but arouse the ambition of the ^le'Sene^ 
French to do the same. And so it was 
that in 1667 Louis XIV despatched an expedition under 
Francis Caron to open up trade with India. Caron 
touched at Cochin, and by the end of the same year, the 
first French factory was established at Surat. He next 
obtained permission from the King of Golconda for the 
French to trade in that king's dominions, and to erect a 
factory at Masulipatam. Not content with such gradual 
progress, he conceived the idea of ousting the Dutch 
from their possessions in Ceylon. He accordingly led 
an expedition against them ; but his hopes of acquir- 
ing a rpady-made business were disappointed. The 


Dutch defeated him at Point de Galle, and though 
Trinkamali fell into his hands, he again lost it to his 
enemies. When the war ended, the only gain from the 
loss of much money and many lives, was the small and 
unimportant town of St. Thome, near Madras. The 
home Government considered that Caron had been a 
failure, and he was replaced by Martin. 

Martin's policy was to secure the prosperity of the 
Martin French Company, by being on friendly 

terms with all around him. The French 
had come to trade, and trade depends upon peace. He 
accordingly entered into negotiations with Sher Khan 
Lodi of Bijapur in the Karnatic, and purchased from 
him Puducheri (Pondichery), Villanur, and Bahur. 
Pondichery was excellently situated and healthy. 
While it was protected against the monsoon, it also 
afforded a safe landing place, and was besides, a con- 
venient point from which to traffic with the interior. 
So it was made the capital of the Indian possessions of 
France. Martin fortified it, and raised regiments of 
native soldiers. 

But trouble was at hand. In 1675, Sivaji the 
powerful Maratha chief, made a raid into the Karnatic 
for plunder. Sher Khan Lodi fled before him, and he 
turned upon the French on the pretext that they were 
the alhesofSher Khan. Martin, however, warded off 
the danger which threatened by prudently acknowledg- 
ing the supremacy of the Marathas, and by paying 
Sivaji a sum of money for the retention of Pondichery, 
and for permission to continue to trade in the Karnatic. 

It must be noted that, during this period of history, 
when any two nations went to war in Europe, it meant 
that they had to fight against each other also in India. 
About this time war broke out between the French and 
the Dutch on the Continent, and so the hostilities ex- 
tended to India. The Dutch had not forgotten how 
Caron had attempted to expel them from Ceylon, and 
were glad of an opportunity to pay off old" scores. 


They promptly landed at Pondichery, and took it. But 
four years later the European war was brought to a 
close by the Peace of Ryswick, and as one of the condi- 
tions of the treaty was that Pondichery should be re- 
stored to the French, it was given back to them. 

Some years previous to this, 1688, the Emperor 
Aurangzeb had given Chandarnagar, in Bengal, to the 
Frencli ; and their affairs had so prospered that when 
in 1 70 1 the title of Governor of Pondichery was con- 
ferred on Martin, he ruled over tracts of land at 
Masulipatam, Surat, Chandarnagar, Balasore, Dacca, 
Patna, and Casimbazar. During his administration, which 
continued till his death, in 1709, trade flourished, and 
the French were courted by Indian princes. But when 
Law succeeded Martin, things went badly with the 
French Company, and its trade declined. A reaction, 
however, set in in 1721 when Lenoir assumed the 
government, and prosperity once more returned. 

The next French Governor was Dumas. He resum- 
ed the policy of Martin, and through 
Dost Ali, the Nawab of the Karnatic, he Dumas, 

obtained from Muhammad Shah, of 
Delhi, permission to coin money. He lent his troops to 
a claimant to the throne of Tanjore, and received in 
return the town of Karikal and ten villages adjacent to 
it. The Mughal Empire, it will be remembered, was 
at this moment passing through a severe crisis, for Nadir 
Shah had invaded India. As though this were not 
enough, the Marathas, jealous of the Emperor's growing 
influence in the south, raided the Karnatic, 1736, and 
completely defeated Dost Ali. The near and distant 
relatives of the Nawab, as also many minor chiefs of the 
neighbourhood, flocked into Pondichery for protection 
against the dreaded enemy. Protection was afforded 
them by Dumas, who saw in this a means of extending 
French patronage, and an opportunity of bringing into 
his debt those who, later on, might be of signal service 
to the Frepch. As was to be expected, the Marathas 


demanded that the refugees should be dehvered to them, 
and when Dumas refused to comply, Raghuji Bhonsla 
threatened to raze Pondichery to the dust. But Dumas 
pacified him, and the Maratha chieftain was content to 
return home with what booty he had gained. The 
princes who had thus been delivered from the hand of 
the Marathas, were naturally full of gratitude to the 
French, and they repaid their protectors by making 
them grants of land. Safdar Ali, son and heir to the 
late Nawab of the Karnatic, added to the French pos- 
sessions, and the Mughal Emperor conferred upon 
Dumas the title of Nawab, and created him a Com- 
mander of 4,500 Horse, both of which dignities were to 
be transmitted to his successors. After a most distinguish- 
ed career Dumas retired in 1741, and the celebrated 
Dupleix became Director-General of the French Posses- 
sions in 'India. 

Section II. 
Struggle Between the English and the French. 

1741 — 1783 A.D. 

DUPLEIX had hitherto been in charge at Chandar- 
nagar. When he took up the reins of government, 
the War of the Austrian Succession was 
brewing in Europe, and neither England Duoleix. At- 
nor France could spare either money ffs^^V'^F^e^eh 
or forces for operations in far-off India. Empire. 
Foreseeing what was hkely to happen 
when war was declared at home, Dupleix at once began 
to enter into alliances with the princes around him, and 
to cut down the expenses of the French factories. The 
most important of his new allies was Anwar-ud-din, the 
Nawab of Arcot, and the landlord of the English. As 
soon as the expected war — the War of the Austrian 
Succession — broke out in Europe, the Enghsh attacked 
Pondichery. Dupleix appealed to the 
Nawab to forbid his tenants, the English, ^^^ Karnatie 
to attack the Capital of his allies, the 
French. The Nawab complied; but, his prohibition 
notwithstanding, the English blockaded Pondichery, 
and were on the point oUaking it, when La Bourdonnais 
opportunely arrived with a French fleet. To draw their 
foes away from Pondichery, the French made up their 
minds to lay siege to Madras. It was now the turn of 
the English to appeal to the Nawab to protect his 
tenants. But he was not in sympathy with them ; 
besides, he wanted the French to take the city, for 
Dupleix had promised to give him the town as soon as 
it was wrested from the English. So Madras fell into 
the han<is of the French, and its garrison were made 
prisoner^ of war. But now that he had got Madras, 




Dupleix changed his mind, and decided to keep it. 
This roused the indignation of the Nawab, and he sent 
his son, Maphuz Khan, with troops to compel its pro- 
mised surrender. But the French were nothing daunt- 
ed. They took the field, and defeated their late friend 
and patron, in the decisive battle of St. Thome. This 
battle had important results. Hitherto the English 
and the French had been contented to be the vassals 
of the Nawab. Now the position was inverted. The 
Europeans were proved to be so strong in arms as to 
be able to defeat powerful Indian rulers. They needed 
no longer to sue for protection, but could instead dictate . 
terms, even to the mighty Nawab of the Karnatic 
himself. As for Duplei.x, his ambition was kindled, and 
henceforth it became his set purpose to bring all 
Southern India under the sway of France. 

The French already owned enough territory in India 
to make them wish for more. With Pondichery, Madras 
and Karikal in his power— if Dupleix could only crush 
the British, the French would indeed be supreme. The 
Englishmen who escaped when Madras had been taken, 
had strengthened themselves in Fort St. David. With- 
out loss of time Paradis was sent to drive them from 
the fort. But he was destined not to succeed, for an 
English fleet, under Admiral Boscawen, appeared off 
Pondichery, and the French had to hasten to the pro- 
tection of their own capital. The war had reached this 
point when the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed in 
Europe in 1748, and as one of its conditions was the 
mutual restitution of all conquests, the First Karnatic 
War terminated with the English and French giving 
each other back, what each had gained in the war. 

Now that they were at peace between themselves 
and with their neighbours, the French 

Second ^^^d the English had more soldiers in 

Karnatic war. ^^^^.^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^j^^^. j,^^^^, ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^ 

with. But it was not long before they found occupation 
for them. In 1748 the Nizam-ul-Mulk, Subahdar of the 


Deccan, died at Haidarabad. Among other descendants 
he left two sons, Nadir (or Nazir) Jang; and Salabat 
Jang, and a grandson, Muzaffar Jang. Nazir Jang had 
been declared heir by his father. JMuzaffar Jang on the 
other hand put in a claim. Nazir Jang, however, was 
not disposed to give up his claim without resistance. 
So he made preparations to fight for his rights, and he 
appealed to the English to take up his cause. This 
they agreed to do. Muzaffar Jang forthwith enlisted 
the co-operation of the French. And so the old rivals 
were once more pitted against each other. But another 
complication now arose. When Dost Ali, the Nawab 
of the Karnatic, had been taken prisoner by the Marathas, 
the nawabship had been conferred on Anwar-ud-din. 
Anwar-ud-din died at this time, and immediately the 
succession to the throne of Arcot was disputed by 
Chand (or Chanda) Sahib, son-in-law of Dost Ali, and 
Muhammad Ali, son of Anwar-ud-din. Chanda Sahib 
secured the support of the French, while the English 
ranged themselves on the side of Muhammad Ali. 
There was thus a strong combination of forces in which 
the English, Nazir Jang, and Muhammad Ali opposed 
the French, Muzaffar Jang, and Chanda Sahib. Thus 
began the Second Karnatic War which was to settle the 
succession to the thrones of Haidarabad and Arcot. 

At the beginning of the war the French had much 
success, and Muhammad Ali fled to Trichinopoli, leaving 
Nazir Jang alone in the field. The French and their 
allies concentrated against Trichinopoli, and were not 
far from taking it when Clive came to the rescue by 
suddenly capturing Arcot, the capital of the Karnatic. 
Things now went badly for the French, and when Clive 
won the decisive battle ofSriramgaon, 1752, and Chanda 
Sahib was slain, Muhammad Ali was left without a rival 
in the Karnatic. The war, however, lingered on, and 
after varying fortunes on both sides, the French suffered 
a crushiifg defeat at Trichinopoli, and were glad to come 
to terms. The French Government at ihome was by 


this time weary of a profitless and expensive war. 
Clive whose health had failed, was obliged in 1753 to 
go to England. Dupleix was recalled, and Godeheu 
was sent out in his stead, with express commands to 
speedily make peace. The terms upon which hostilities 
ceased, were that Muhammad Ali was to be Nawab of 
Arcot, and Muzaffar Jang Subahdar of the Deccan, 


But peace was not long to continue. In 1756, the 

Seven Years' War broke out in Europe between the 
English and the French, and so hostilities between 
them were resumed in India. The French general, 
Lally, promptly took Fort St. David, captured Arcot, 
and laid siege to Madras. Meanwhile the English were 
not without their successes. They obtained possession 
of the Northern Circars, and induced the Subahdar of 
the Deccan to desert the French, and throw in his lot 
with them. Moreover, Colonel Eyre Coote worsted 
the French at Wandiwash, 1760, and gained Arcot, 
Devicota, and Karikal. But now what had happened 
before happened again. In Europe peace was restored 
by the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, and Pondicher)' was 
given back to the French. The war, however, had 
rudely shaken their power in India. 

The English, on the other hand, prospered more 

than before. In 1765, the Mughal 

of"^e Enff'^^h Emperor conferred on them sovereign 

over the Fpeneh. rights over the Northern Circars, and 

as Muhammad Ali ruled over the 
Karnatic by their permission, the East India Company 
was practically, if not actually, master of all Southern 
India from Orissa to Cape Comorin. Here, in the 
south, Clive and Coote carried all before them, and in 
Bengal, Warren Hastings was building up a lasting 
empire. While he was Governor-General of the British 
possessions in India, Chandarnagar and Pondichery 
were captured from the French, in the course^ of the 
Second Mysore War. They were, however, subsequently 


restored when the Treaty of Versailles was signed 
in Europe, 1783. But from this time the French 
gave up hopes of acquiring an empire in India, and all 
that now remains to them in this country is Chandar- 
nagar, Karikal, Mahe, Ganam and Pondichery, 

Section III. 
Robert Clive and Warren Hastings. 

1^44— I7j8 A.D. 

IN 1744 Robert Clive came to Madras as a writer, or 
clerk, in the service of the East India Company. 
But subsequent events proved that the council chamber 
and the battle-field were his proper spheres. For the 
better understanding of the history of the times, let us 
take a general survey of India, and recapitulate much 
that has already been narrated. 

It will be remembered how, in the closing years 
of Aurangzeb's reign, the Mughal Em- 

eal"^^^upvey^°of' R'^^ ^^^ begun to decline ; and how the 
India. ' little that was left of it had been shat- 

tered in 1739, by the invasion of Nadir 
Shah, It has been seen how various soldiers of fortune,, 
on the fragments of the Mughal Empire, set up kingdoms 
for themselves in Oudh, Rohilkhand, Bengal, and the 
Deccan. Meanwhile, the warlike Marathas acquired for 
themselves, province after province in Southern, Western,, 
and Central India ; and the Sikhs disputed the sovereign- 
ty of the Punjab with the Emperor Ahmad Shah. 
The Deccan, which included the Northern Circars and 
the Karnatic, was in the hands of the Nizam-ul-Mulk,. 
who also claimed Trichinopoli. The Nawab of the 
Karnatic was his vassal ; but Mysore, Travancore and 
Cochin were independent kingdoms. 

The other powers in the south were the English 
and the French. The former had their head-quarters at 
Madras, and were the tenants of the Nawab of the 
Karnatic. The French capital was Pondichery. Both 
nations had come merely to traffic in the land, but they 
were drawn into the quarrels which the Indian princes 
had with one another, and were also subject to the results- 


Clives First 

of political conflicts in Europe. And so in one way or 
another they had gained a footing in the country. 

The circumstances under which the English and 
French were ranged against each other 
in the First Karnatic War have already 
been explained ; and the results of that 

war will be remember- 
ed. Dupleix and Clive 
took part in the strug- 
gle. When Paradis 
took Madras, in 1746, 
Clive was there, as also 
in the campaign by 
which the English at- 
tempted to restore the 
King of Tanjore to the 
throne of which the 
French had deprived 
him. He was like- 
wise present in the 
army that resisted 
Dupleix before Trich- 
inopoli. Hitherto, as 
Robert Ciive. Occasion demanded, 

Clive had passed from the chair in his office to the battle- 
field ; but now, 1 75 1, he finally resigned his clerkship, 
and entered the army. It was at this time, while the 
French were threatening Trichinopoli in the Second Kar- 
natic War, that he restored the prestige of the Company 
by capturing Arcot. His next achievement was to win 
the Battle of Sriramgaon, 1752, after which the French 
surrendered at Trichinopoli, and Cauda Sahib was killed 
at the gates of his palace. Clive's health now broke 
down, and he had to return to England ; but he went 
with the satisfaction of knowing that but for him Dupleix 
would have founded a French Empire in Southern 
India. , 

The year 1755 saw Clive back as Governor and 


, Commander of Fort St. George, with 

and^ ^Hastfng's succession to the governorship of Madras. 
First Period. At that time war with France was 
proceeding, and he was on the point of 
wresting the Deccan from French influence, when peace 
was concluded in Europe, and hostilities in India had to 
be dropped. And it was just as well, for Bengal demanded 
the immediate services of Clive. In 1750, a young clerk 
had come to Calcutta * — Warren Hastings. For the 
superior parts that he exhibited, he was posted, in 1753, 
to Kasimbazar, near Murshidabad, the capital of Bengal. 
Three years later Ali Vardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal, 
Bihar, and Orissa, died, and was succeeded by his grand- 
son, Siraj-ud-daulah. This young man picked a quarrel 
with the English, suddenly seized their factory at Kasim- 
bazar, and marched his prisoners — Hastings among 
them— to Murshidabad. He then moved against Cal- 
cutta, whence most of the English factors including 
Drake, the governor, fled for safety to the ships on the 
river. The city and its fort fell before the Nawab, who 

* Early History of Calcutta.— it will be remembered that in 
1656 the Nawab of Bengal made a gift of Hugliin Bengal to the Company. 
Here they established a factory ; hut in 1686, owing to the oppression of 
the Mughal authorities, they abandoned Hughli, and migrated to the village 
of Sutanti, 26 miles lower down the river. Four years later the Emperor 
Aurangzeb, made them a grant of land there, and permitted them to acquire 
the two neighbouring villages of Kalikata and Govindpur. And soil came 
about that Job Charnock, the President, on this site laid the foundation of 
the present city of Calcutta. In 1698, permission having been obtained 
to put the settlement in a state of defence, a fort was built. The town 
.steadily grew in commercial importance, and Portuguese, Armenian, 
Mughal and Hindu traders began to reside in it. Till 1707 its aftairs were 
managed from Madras, but in that year it was made an independent 
Presidency. In 1715 Dr. Hamilton, of the Company's Service, cured the 
Emperor Farukhsiyar of a serious malady, and the grateful Monarch gave 
the English permission to purchase 38 villages on either side of the river, 
ten miles south of Calcutta In 1742 there was a scare that the Marathas 
were planning an attack on the city, ami the native inhabitants dug a ditch 
round a portion of the Company's boundaries as a protection. In 175'^» 
when Warren Hastings first came to India, Mr. Barwell was governor of 
the City. In 1752 he was succeeded by Mr. Drake — mentior of whom 
brings us to the stirring times now being chronicled. 


demanded the money in the Company's Treasury. Fail- 
ing in his attempts to find where the money was secreted, 
he permitted 146 English prisoners to be shut up in a small 
dungeon, ever since known in history as the Black Hole. 
It was the month of June, and, as might 
have been expected, when next morning yioie 1756 
the only door to the room was opened 
but 2^ of the victims were dragged out alive. Among 
the survivors was Holwell w^ho, in the absence of Drake, 
had assumed the head of affairs. He was put in irons, 
and conveyed to Murshidabad. Clive was at Madras 
when news came oi this calamity in Bengal. Forth- 
with he and Admiral Watson were despatched to take 
vengeance ; but they did not reach Bengal till December. 
Watson demanded from Siraj-ud-daulah compensation 
for the losses that had been inflicted on the English ; 
but he remained defiant. So the army of retribution 
retook Calcutta, and captured the French town of 
Chandarnagar — for the double reason that the Seven 
Years' War was going on in Europe with the English 
and the French on opposite sides, and that the latter 
had become the allies of the Nawab. Meanwhile this 
ruler was not without secret enemies. His commander- 
in-chief, Mir Muhammad Jafar, entered into league with 
the English who promised to put him on the throne of 
Murshidabad. This arrangement had been made through 
the agency of Umachand (Amin or 
Amir Chand), a wealthy merchant of Umaehand. 

Calcutta. But at the last moment Uma- 
chand threatened to reveal the secret to Siraj-ud-daulah, 
unless a sum of 20 lakhs were paid him. The position 
in which Clive found himself was most critical. He 
resolved to fight the blackmailer with his own weapon, 
and thus was led to the questionable act of palming off 
on Umachand a false document which promised him the 
hush-money he demanded. The Company's army then 
marched on, and met the troops of Siraj-ud-daulah at 
Plassey*, There the historic Battle of Plassey was fought 


p, on the 23rd June, 1757, and Siraj-ud- 

Re?ults. ns?! "^^"^^^^ fl^d from the field— outmatched 

by the daring of Clive, and betrayed by 
the treachery of his own commander-in-chief. For, as 
the result of the battle began to declare itself, Mir Jafar 
withdrew his followers and went over to the enemy. 
The English were now supreme in Bengal, Bihar, and 
Orissa, and Mir Jafar became the Nawab at Murshidabad. 
For his elevation he ceded to the English all the lands 
south of Calcutta, delivered into the hands of his patrons 
all the French factories in Bengal, and paid one crore 
of rupees to the Company. Of Siraj-ud-daulah it only 
remains to relate that he fled from Plassey to Rajmahal; 
that he was there captured, and brought down to Mir 
Jafar, who pitilessly put him to death. 

Clive was now free to turn his attention to the 
French, who, taking advantage of his 
Coote and Lally. absence in Bengal, had under Lally, 
captured Fort St. David and Arcot, and were besieging 
Madras. Colonels Forde and Coote were despatched 
from Bengal, and, defeating the French in several engage- 
ments, gained possession of the Northern Circars. The 
Subahdar of the Deccan, too, threw over the French,, 
and entered into an alliance with the English. 

While these events were transpiring in the south,. 

Mir Jafar began to realise that he had 
Mir Jafap. promised what he could not fulfil. In 

paying the price of his nawabship he 
had exhausted his treasury, and he could see no way of 
replenishing it. The recurring demands for money 
which he made on his wealthy subjects drove them 
into discontent, so much so, indeed, that the Raja of 
Purnia and the Governor of Bihar went into open rebel- 
lion. Nor were his difficulties decreased by a threatened 
invasion of Bengal by the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, and by a 
son of Shah Alam of Delhi. In his heart of hearts, Mir 
Jafar longed to rid himself of his dependence upon the 
English, but the present stress of circumstances obliged 


him to apply to them for help against his mutinous 
vassals. Clive accordingly led an army to Patna, the 
capital of Bihar, and entered the city in triumph (1759). 
While he was thus engaged, Mir Jafar took advantage 
of a war between the English and the Dutch in Europe, 
and prevailed upon the latter to assist him in getting 
free of his bondage to the Company. The Dutch were 
only too willing to engage in hostilities with their 
country's enemy ; but they were easil}^ routed at Biderra, 
near Chinsurah, and Mir Jafar found himself in a worse 
plight than before. Never again did the Dutch disturb 
the tranquillity of India. Clive at this time, 1760, went 
to England for a second time, and left Mr. Holwell, 
Governor of Calcutta, in charge until Mr. Vansittart 
arrived to dictate terms to Mir Jafar. The latter, in 
despair, resigned his nawabship, and was removed to a 
suburb of Calcutta, while his son-in-law, Mir Kasim AH, 
was elevated to the vacant office. He contracted to 
pay off the debts of his father-in-law, to endow the 
Company with the revenues of Burdwan, Midnapur, 
and Chittagong, and to contribute five lakhs towards the 
expenses of the war in the Karnatic. Hastings, who 
was stationed at Murshidabad during these years, ren- 
dered valuable service in putting these negotiations 
through, and he was rewarded with a seat in the 
Calcutta Council. 

Mir Kasim was an upright and firm ruler, and 
. as he had undertaken heavy monetary 

K-asim. responsibilities, he was determined to 

improve his revenue by all lawful means. His efforts 
to do so brought him into conflict with the Company. 
The Company was exempted from all tolls and transit 
duties on articles of commerce. But it was never intend- 
ed that the private trade of the Company's servants 
should escape taxation as it was doing. He, therefore, 
brought the personal trade of Englishmen under the 
same rates as those levied on every other trader. But 
he was deprived of his dues by what he considered the 


dishonesty of English traders, who hoisted the Com- 
pany's flag to protect there private trade from taxation. 
This practice told against other traders who could not 
escape the transit duties, and Mir Kasim felt, that the 
only thing he could do under the circumstances was to 
abolish all tolls and taxes on commerce. This he 
accordingly did. The Calcutta Council protested ; but 
the Nawab remained firm. The relation between 
him and the English became more and more strained, 
till finally war was declared (1763). The English took 
Patna, which the Nawab speedily recovered, massacring 
the English whom he found there. The Company's 
troops then defeated the Nawab at Geriah, and captured 
Monghyr. Major Adams presently retook Patna, and 
Mir Kasim fled for protection to his late enemy, Shuja-ud- 
daulah, the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, with whom the 
homeless emperor, Shah Alam, also was finding shelter. 
By this act he was considered to have vacated the 
nawabship of Bengal, and Mir Jafar was reinstated 
on promising to reimpose all the old transit duties against 
his own subjects, and to pay large sums of money into 
the Company's treasury. The war against Mir Kasim 
continued. He and his allies were finally beaten at the 
Battle of Buxar, 1764, and Allahabad was taken. Shuja- 
ud-daulah's hopes of making conquests were now forever 
extinguished, and the hapless Shah Alam threw himself 
on the mercy of the victors. In the following year 
Clive returned, and the Nawab Wazir was obliged to 
sue for peace, for Oudh was overrun by the Company's 
troops. The terms to which Shah Alam had to agree 
were that Chunar should become a British possession, 
and that the provinces of Kora and Allahabad, should 
be administered for him by the Company, who were 
also to receive from him a sum of fifty lakhs. Moreover, 
the whole of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa were to be given 
to the English in return for an annual tribute of twent)'- 
six lakhs. 

While these arrangements were proceeding, -Hastings 


went to England : but as already 
stated Clive had come back as governor pepU)d 1765 
of Calcutta, to the scene of his former 
labours and triumphs. This was his third stay in India^ 
and he devoted it to the introduction of several impor- 
tant reforms. After remodelling the army, he restricted 
the private trade of the Company's servants. To com- 
pensate them for it, and to remove from them all tempta- 
tion to receive bribes, he proposed to increase their 
salaries; but this the Court of Directors would not 

When Mir Jafar died in 1765, Clive setup that 
nawab's son, Najm-ud-daulah, in his place, but the 
conditions under which he ruled were greatly altered. 
He was to exercise only the powers of Nizam, and to 
be responsible for the peace of the three provinces of 
Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa ; for the administration of 
justice in the courts ; and for the enforce- 
ment of obedience to law. The Company ofGovernmSit. 
reserved to itself the Diwani of the 
provinces, that is to say, its business would be to collect 
the revenues, make all payments, and remit the surplus 
to its own treasury. This Dual System of Government 
did not work very long, for Najm-ud-daulah ceded 
his Nizamat, and was content to be a cypher in return 
for an annual allowance. 

The arduous toils of the years 1765 and 1766 
completed the ruin of Clive's health, and, having accom- 
plished his life's work, he left the service of the Company, 
and returned to England in 1767. Here his health never 
returned; and eventually, in 1774, he put an end to 

While Clive and Warren Hastings were away from 
India, fresh complications took place in 
Southern India, where Muhammad Ali p.^^^ Mysore 
was Nawab of the Karnatic, Nazir Ali war, 1767-1769, 
was Nizafn of the Deccan, and Haidar 
Ali was Sultan of Mysore. In 1 767 the Marathas invaded 


Mysore, * and were bought off by Haidar Ali, who 
was now joined by the Nizam, an ally ot the English, 
who had contracted to assist him against his enemies. 
Accordingly, Colonel Smith was sent to support him ; 
but he treacherously turned upon the English army. 
He was soon driven to sue for peace; but Haidar 
Ali had still to be taken into account. He pressed 
Madras so hard, that, in 1769, the English signed 
an inglorious treaty by which they pledged them- 
selves in future to fight for the Sultan, when he was 
engaged in war. But it soon appeared that they 
had made a rash promise; for in 1770, the Marathas 
again invaded Mysore to recover tribute that had not 
been paid to the Peshwa, and were assisted by Muham- 
mad Ali, the Nawab of the Karnatic. Now, this Nawab 
was a vassal of the English, and if they joined Haidar 
Ali against the Marathas it meant that they must fight 
against their ally. This they felt Ihey could not do, 
and so they did not aid the Sultan against the Marathas. 
The result was that the invaders appropriated half of 
Mysore, and Haidar Ali never forgave the English for 
failing him in the hour of his need. 

In the previous year Hastings had returned to India 
as a member of the Madras Council. In 1771, how- 
ever, he was sent to Calcutta, where Verelst had 

*The kingdom of Mysore has been frequently mentioned, and it has 
been seen that it was ruled over by Hindu kings. In 1731 Dud Kishen 
died, and imprisoning his successor Chama Raj, his two ministers Deva 
Raj and Nanja Raj usurped all power. Among llie soldiers of Nanja Raj 
was one Haidar Saheb or Haidar Ali, whose ance.-lors came frum the 
Punjal). By his talents he worked his way up to the command of an inde- 
pendent corps, and when later on territories were assigned to him, his am- 
bition became so grent that, displat ing his patron, Nanja Raj, in 1760, he 
took possession of all Mysore, ascended its throne, and continued the 
imprisonment of Chama Raj. When hi-; son, Tipu, succeeded him, he abol- 
ished the farce of a pageant ruler by reducing Krishna Raj VVadiar, 
Chama Raj's son to beggary', and removing him and his relations to a 
miseralile hovel outside the city. Here they were found when Seringa- 
patani fell before the Knglish, in 1779, and the exile prince was taken under 
the protection of the British, and restored to the throne of Mysore. 


Easting's Se- 
cond Period. 
His Financial 
Revenue, and 
Judicial Re- 

been succeeded by Cartier as governor. 
On assuming the governorship of 
Calcutta, he immediately carried out 
the instructions which he had received 
from the Directors of the East India 
Company, and proceeded to take over 
Bengal and Bihar absolutely, and to abolish the shadow 
of power which was all that now belonged to the Nawab 
of Murshidabad. These provinces, accordingly, passed 
mto the actual possession of the English, and parcels of 
land were farmed out to men of means for a fixed annual 
rental. This was the origin of the Zemindars of Bengal and 
Bihar. Hastings also removed the Company's exchequer 
from Murshihabad to Calcutta. He appointed European 
officers, under the now familiar designation of Collectors 
to superintend the ' 

collection of reve- 
nue, and to preside 
over the courts of 
justice, which he es- 
tablished in every 
district. Appeals 
from these criminal 
and civil courts lay 
to theSadarDiwani 
Adalat or Chief 
Civil Court at 
Calcutta, where also 
the Sardar Nizamat 
Adalat, or Chief 
Criminal Court, was 
founded. For the 
administration of 
justice, Hindu and 
Muhammadan laws 
were codified. Law- 
lessness o^all kinds, 
including ^dakaiti, was firmly put down. By these 

Warren Hastings. 


measures Hastings laid the foundations of righteous 
rule over the lands which Clive's sword had won. 

We saw that, as a result of the Battle of Buxar, in 
1 764, Shuja-ud-daulah, Nawab Wazir of Oudh, made over 
the districts of Kora and Allahabad to Shah Alam, and it 
was agreed that the English should hold them in his favour^ 
and pay him annually twenty-six lakhs for Bengal, Bihar, 
and Orissa. But when the Marathas 
War ^1772^^ entered Delhi, in 1770, Shah Alam ac- 

' ' cepted their offer to restore him to the 

throne of the Mughals, and he transferred to them 
the districts of Kora and Allahabad which Clive had 
restored to him, in 1765. As a matter of fact, when he 
went to Delhi, he found that he was a prisoner, and 
Hastings, therefore, felt himself justified in refusing to 
continue to him the twenty-six lakhs for Bengal, Bihar 
and Orissa, and further in making over, through ihe Treaty 
of Benares, 1772, Kora and AllahalDad to the Nawab 
Wazir of Oudh. In this same year the Marathas invad- 
ed Rohilkhand. The Nawab Wazir of Oudh and the 
English joined hands to help the Rohillas against their 
oppressors. The Marathas were driven beyond the 
Ganges, and the Rohillas were rescued from danger. 
But now, instead of paying the Nawab Wazir the money 
agreed upon as the price of his help, they entered into 
negotiations with the Marathas themselves. A com- 
bination between the two endangered Oudh and Bengal, 
and to Hastings it appeared that the only alternative 
was to conquer Rohilkhand, whose chiefs had broken 
faith with their allies. So the Nawab Wazir entered 
Rohilkhand, and with the assistance of the Company's 
troops defeated the Rohillas at Katra, 1774, and Rohil- 
khand changed masters. 

These and other similar matters made it quite clear 
that the East India Company was some- 
thing more than a mere body of traders. Jf rJ?!. 
It was to be included among the ruling 
powers of the land ; and it was proper that the English 


Parliament should control its political affairs. Accordingly 
the Regulating Act of 1773 was passed. It established 
the High Court of Calcutta, as the supreme court for all 
India. The Governor of Calcutta was made Governor- 
General, and was to direct the Company's affairs at 
Bombay and Madras, with the assistance of a Council of 
four members. In practice, however, the Act did not 
work well, and Hastings found himself thwarted at 
every turn by Philip Francis, a member of his Council, 
and his bitter enemy. Francis and two other members 
formed a perpetual majority, and did all they could to 
insult and humiliate Hastings by opposing him in every 
matter. For instance, when Shuja-ud-daulah, Nawab 
Wazir of Oudh, died, he left the province to his son, Asaf- 
ud-daulah. The Company was in honour bound to 
continue to him the terms which had been settled by 
treaty with his father. But in spite of Hastings' pro- 
tests, the Francis majority in Council, revised those 
terms, and imposed harder ones on him. 
He was compelled to pay off his father's ^^^^p"^:?|Hl^{} 
debts to the Company ; to increase, by ojprested by 
50,ooorupees,the monthly subsidy for the the Council. 
British garrison in Oudh ; and to agree 
that the revenues of Benares should be paid direct by his 
vassal, Chait Singh, to the English and not through him. 
Now, this was altogether unfair ; for Chait Singh's grand- 
father had acquired his property under the Mughals, and 
was a vassal of the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, and an ally 
of the English, inasmuch as he was under promise to 
assist the Company with troops in time of need. But 
more than this, Hastings' protests notwithstanding, the 
Philip Francis majority permitted Asaf-ud-daulah's mo- 
ther and grandmother, the Begums of Oudh, to appro- 
priate about two crores of rupees, which Shuja-ud-daulah 
had left in his treasury. They already had large and 
valuable estates, and by Muhammadan law they had no 
right to Shuja-ud-daulah's treasure. While Hastings was 
figh'ting; for a just cause, his personal enemy, Nanda 


Kumar, accused him before his Council of various acts 
of fraud, oppression, and corruption. Hastings refused 
to be judged by his Council, and referred the matter 
to the Board of Directors. But Nanda « h c 
Kumar fell into the pit which he had dug ^^^^^ Kumar. 
for Hastings. He was found guilty by the Supreme Court 
at Calcutta of obtaining a large sum of money from the 
estate of a dead man by means of a forged bond. The 
punishment for forgery was death, and Nanda Kumar 
was sent to the gallows. It was maliciously said that 
Hastings had contrived the removal of a man dangerous 
to him. But it has been clearly established that Hastings 
was as innocent of the charges brought against himself, 
as he was unconnected with the fate of Nanda Kumar. 
It will be remembered that in 1773, the Maratha 

Peshwa, Narayan Rao, died, and his 
First Maratha uncle, Raghunath Rao (or Raghoba as 
War, 1775. he is commonly called) was made 

Peshwa. But Nana Farnavis produced 
a posthumous son of Narayan Rao, and determined to 
secure the peshwaship to him, under the name of Madhu 
Rao II. The various Maratha chiefs thereupon entered 
the lists on opposite sides, and civil war began. Raghoba 
applied for help to the English at Bombay, and without 
the sanction of the Governor-General, by the Treaty of 
Surat they agreed to assist him, if he would give them 
Bassein and Salsette. This he reluctantly promised to do. 
Although Hastings thought differently, the Court of Direc- 
tors approved of the Treaty of Surat ; and so began the 
First Maratha War. With ill-judged haste the Bomba}^ 
army marched against Poona ; but it was hemmed in by 
the troops of Nana Farnavis, and had to retreat to 
Wargaon. Here a Convention was signed, by which the 
English restored to the Peshwa all that they had won in 
Western India since 1765. Meanwhile, Raghoba had 
taken shelter with the English at Surat. Nana Farnavis 
demanded his surrender, and taking advantage of the 
known hatred which Haidar All, Sultan of Mysore, bore 


to the English, he instigated the Sultan to enter upon 
hostilities against them. To do this Haidar Ali readily 
consented. Thus the Company was embroiled 
in practically two wars — one in the west against the 
Marathas, and one in the south against Mysore. The 
disgrace that had befallen the British at Wagaon, 
urged Hastings to push the war on in earnest with the 
Marathas, and Colonel Goddard, after a brilliant march 
across the peninsula, took Ahmadabad, defeated Sindhia 
and Holkar, and captured Bassein, while Captain 
Pophan reduced the rock-perched fortress of Gwaliar. 
The Marathas now suffered a series of defeats, and were 
ready to accept terms. Accordingly the Treaty of 
Salbai was signed by Sindhia and his party, 1782. 
By it the Marathas undertook never more to enter 
into alliance with the French ; to permit no nation other 
than the English, to trade in their territories ; and to give 
Raghoba a pension of four lakhs a year. The English 
acknowledged Madhu Rao II as Peshwa, but retained 
Gwaliar, and restored Bassein and Gujarat to the infant 
Peshwa, for whom Nana Farnavis had fought. Thus 
ended the First Maratha War. 

Freed from the struggle with the Marathas, Hastings 
was now able to give all his attention to the war 
in the south. Its immediate cause was 
that against the remonstrance of Haidar wap,"l78a ^°^^ 
Ali, the English had captured Mahe ; 
a French possession in Mysore. Haidar Ali was long- 
ing for an opportunity to take revenge upon the 
English, for allowing him to be deprived of half of his 
kingdom by the Marathas, in spite of the promise 
they had made him in the Treaty of Madras. So, 
joined by the French, and encouraged by the Mara- 
thas, he suddenly raided the Karnatic, captured Arcot, 
and appeared within nine miles of Madras, while 
his son, Tipu, laid siege to Wandiwash. Meanwhile 
Colonel Baillie was severely defeated at Conjeve- 
ram*.^'*Poote, however, soon came to the rescue from 


Bengal, and having worsted Haidar's army, near Porto 
Novo, went to the aid of Madras. Alarmed by the 
arrival of British reinforcements, Tipu raised the siege of 
Wandivvash ; and the prospects of the Company still 
further improved by their victory at Shalingarh. But 
a new diversion was caused by a war breaking out m 
Europe, in which England fought against Holland and 
France. It spread to India, where the Dutch and the 
French offered assistance to Haidar Ali, with the result 
that the field had to be taken against them. In 1781, 
Negapatam and Trincomali were taken from the Dutch, 
but in the following year, they regained Trincomali and 
Cuddalore. Haidar Ah now died at Chittur, and in his 
turban — so it was said — was found a paper in which he 
directed his son, Tipu, to make peace with the English. 
But if the Marathas had laid aside their arms because of 
the Treaty of Salbai, the French were still waging war; 
and Tipu determined to fight on with their help. As has 
been elsewhere related, Bussy commanded the French 
forces, and several battles were fought with varying re- 
sults, till the Treaty of Versailles terminated the warfare 
between the Enghsh and the French. Though left 
alone, Tipu did not yield till Mangalore was taken from 
him. Then he signed a treaty at that place, and each 
side had its former possessions restored. 

The Treaties of Salbai and Mangalore mark an era 
in Indian history. Single-handed the English had tri- 
umphed over the combined armies of the Marathas, the 
French, the Dutch, and Haidar Ali. This finally estab- 
lished their superiority. The surrounding powers saw 
that a quarrel with the English would plunge them into 
a costly war, and that the probabilities of success were 
against themselves. The Marathas, too, realised that it 
was vain to endeavour to build a Hindu Empire on the 
ruins of the dominions of the Great Mughal. 

But the prolonged wars by which this prestige was 
won, had emptied the Company's treasury. The pro- 
prietors of the Company grumbled at heavy exneniiiture 


and no profits, and Hastings began to Hastings's Deal- 
look about for means whereby to re- ings with Chait 
plenish the Company's coffers. It Singh and the 
seemed to him that Raja Cbait Singh of Begumsof Oudh. 
Benares and the Begums of Oudh had behaved in such 
a way during the recent wars as to justify him in 
punishing them with heavy fines. The conditions under 
which Chait Singh ruled from 1775, have already been 
stated. From that date his vassalage had been to the 
Enghsh, and not to the Nawab Wazir of Oudh. He had, 
moreover, bound himself to supply the English, in times 
of pressing need with money and men. During the late 
wars with the Marathas and Haidar Ali, Hastings 
had called upon him to send some troops. He had 
sent none. Were his breach of faith to be allowed to 
pass unvisited, other tributary chiefs might follow his 
example. This was obviously a serious matter ; and 
after some parle3nng, Hastings imposed a fine of 50 lakhs 
on him. Chait Singh hesitated ; Hastings proceeded to 
Benares to exact the penalty ; and Chait Singh was made 
a prisoner in his own palace. He, however, managed to 
escape to Ramnagar, and put himself at the head of an 
army, part of which had been sent him by the Begums of 
Oudh. He was encountered by Popham at Bijaigarh, and 
defeated. But Popham's soldiers looted all the treasure 
they found, and Hastings therefore gained nothing for 
the Company. However, the province of Benares was 
given to Chait Singh's nephew on the condition that the 
revenue which his uncle had been accustomed to pay 
the Company was to be doubled. 

It has already been related that the Begums of 
Oudh had, with the consent of the Council, but against 
law, and against Hastings' wish, possessed themselves of 
about two crores of rupees, which Shuja-ud-daulah had 
left on his death, and which in justice belonged to Asaf- 
ud-daulah. Deprived of nearly half his patrimony this 
prince"*Was not able to pay his dues to the Company, 
indeed, /ear by year he was sinking deeper and deeper 


into the Company's debt. He reminded Hastings of 
the circumstances under which the Begums had deprived 
him of his birthright. Left to Hastings they would 
never have had the money, and now that the Francis 
majority no longer hampered him, Hastings was willing 
to undo a shameful wrong. Besides this, the Begums 
had assisted Chait Singh in his rebellion, and it was 
necessary that they should be punished. He therefore 
signed the Treaty of Chunar which gave Asaf-ud-daulah 
permission to resume the jagirs of the Begums, and to 
recover from them the two crores of rupees of which 
they had deprived him. The Begums did not meekly 
submit. They fought against Asaf-ud-daulah, but he 
prevailed, and in addition to resuming their jagirs 
he took away from them the two crores of rupees. 
Hastings, however, saw that they were provided with 
liberal pensions. Asaf-ud-daulah now paid his debt to 
the Company. 

In 1784 Pitt's India Bill was passed by Parliament. 
Recognising the great political power 
Pitt's India ^-^^^ ^^ie East India Company had be- 
come, it was now put under the direct 
control of a Board of Ministers. 

Early in the following year Hastings laid down the 
reins of office in favour of Sir John 
ISI'Jwopk. Macpherson and returned home His 
career, if full of anxiety and toil, had 
been a distinguished one. When he came to Bengal, in 
1772, he found the province in disorder and distress. 
Lawlessness prevailed on every side ; the strong ever 
oppressed the weak. The Nawab of Bengal's officers 
and the servants of the Company plundered the 
peasants, and had no respect for authority. There 
was no proper form of government. Before he left 
these shores he had extended the influence, the prestige, 
and the honour of the Company. He replaced dis- 
order by a set form of government and an estaoifshed 
code of laws. His wisdom and foresight were so 


great that it may in truth be said that the Indian 
Government of to-day is essentially the system which 
he introduced. 

But he was not honoured as he deserved to be. 

His many enemies, instigated and tutor- 
The Impeach- ed by men like Philip Francis, impeach- 
iS|s!^ "^^' ed him before the House of Lords for 

his dealings with Chait Singh and the 
Begums of Oudh, and for the Rohilla War. For seven 
long years the trial lasted, and he was in the end 
honourably acquitted on every charge that his enemies 
had preferred against him. For a century his fame 
has been tarnished with the suspicion that he was 
responsible for the execution of Nanda Kumar, and for 
all the misery that men of the Francis type had charged 
him with producing. But recent investigation has 
endorsed his acquittal by Parhament, and to-day we 
remember him among the greatest men whom England 
has ever sent to India. It is true that the expenses of 
a protracted trial ruined him, for he did not return home 
as many others did, fabulously rich. But before he died, 
in 18 1 8, he had the satisfaction of knowing that his 
nation honoured him. For when he was 80 years old 
he was summoned to give evidence on Indian affairs 
before the House of Commons, and as he left the 
House, the members rose, removed their hats, and 
stood in silence. 


The Later Period of the Company : 

The Building up of the English Empire in India, 
The GovernorS'General after Hastings. 

1785—1^58 A.D. 

SIR John Macphepson, 1785-1786,— Sir John Mac- 
pherson acted as Governor-General for twenty 
months; but nothing of any importance took place 
while he managed the affairs of the Company. It was, 
however, very evident that Tipu, though defeated, was 
not crushed, and that he was only waiting for something 
to occur that would give him an excuse for declaring 
war upon the English. 

Lord Copnwallis, 1786-1793.— Lord Comwallis 
His Policy came to India with the determination to 

adopt a policy of non-intervention in the 
affairs of native states, 
and thus to keep out of 
wars, and to reform the 
Company's service. It 
will be remembered that 
both Clive and Warren 
Hastings tried to put 
down bribery and private 
trade, and that they did 
not meet with complete 
success. Comwallis took 
more active steps to 
purify the service, and 
though he made himself 
unpopular by his mea- 
sures, still he had the 
satisfaction of pu.t^''^.g an 
, , „ ,,. end to much of the 

Lord Cornwalhs. 


bribery and corruption that had hitherto been common 
in the Company's service. 

As has been said, Tipu Sultan was still eager for 
war, and so he made an unprovoked 
attack on the Raja of Travancore, The Third Mysore 
knowing that he was an ally of the War. 1790-1792. 
English. Of course there was no 
help for it but to take up the cause of the Raja ; 
and so began the Third Mysore War, 1 790-1 792. The 
Nizam of Haidarabad was jealous of Tipu, and the 
Marathas were bitter against him for his cruel persecu- 



tion of Hindus in the Deccan. It was, therefore, no 
difficult matter for Cornwallis to gain the co-operation 
of the Nizam and of Nana Farnavis. When all was 
ready Cornwallis went to the south, and himself 
conducted the war. After some reverses, Bangalore was 
taken by storm, in 1791, and Tipu retired tor shelter to 
his capital, Seringapatam. The city was on the point ot 
capitulating when Tipu sued for peace, which was 
granted him on condition that he ceded to the Enghsh 
the districts of Dindigal, Baramahal, and Malabar ; that 
he restored Coorg to its Hindu Raja ; that he paid a 
heavy fine ; and that he delivered up two of his sons as 
hostages. Having concluded this war, Cornwallis 
turned his attention to the reformation of the Civil 
Service, and to the permanent settlement of the land 

While the Mughals ruled, the taxes on land had 
been arbitrary, and the ryots never knew 
what would be exacted from them l^^ZmS'nT^^' 
Ihey, therefore, did not feel secure, and Bengal, 1793. 
had no wish to improve their fields, or to 
reclaim jungles, and uncultivated areas. Things were 
somewhat better when the English acquired the Diwani 
of Bengal, in 1765, for then the land taxes were fixed by 
annual or five yearly assessments. The Company's 
servants collected the revenues, and after deducting the 
Company's share of the taxes, handed the balance over 
to the zemindars. In 1789 a change was made by which 
the zemindars themselves collected the revenues, and paid 
its share of the income to the Company. But in 1793 
Cornwallis decided upon fixing the revenues of Bengal 
once and for all, so far as the Company was concerned. 
He accordingly directed the zemindars to give the ryots 
pattas of their lands and to levy the land tax fairly. 
When this was done the ryots, feeling safe against exac- 
tions, began to clear jungles and reclaim swamps. They 
soon became a contented peasantry, and the zent.iimars 
grew into a body of loyal and respectable gentry. ^ While 

Ch.XII] governors-general after HASTINGS. 1 79 

the natives of the soil gained by the Permanent Settle- 
ment, as it is called, the British have in the end lost much 
revenue. For whereas the value and area of rented land 
has increased immeasurably, and zemindars are reaHsing 
greatly increased incomes, the Government of to-day 
is receiving just the same revenue as it did in 1793- 
But if there has been a loss in money, there has been 
an incalculable gain politically. The loundation of all 
government is in the goodwill of the subjects, and the 
Permanent Settlement of Bengal has bound the people 
in loyal devotion to the British Government. 

The Civil Service was full of inconsistencies. Some 
rules prevailed in some places, other 
Reforms the ^.^igg ^^ q^^^q^- places. The result was 
uvu service. ^^^^ ^^^ servants of the Company had 
no proper set of regulations for their guidance. Corn- 
wallis desired to introduce more order and uniformity. 
He therefore published a Code " which defined and set 
bounds to authority, created procedure, guarded against 
miscarriage of justice, and founded the Civil Service of 
India as it exists to this day." 

Sip John Shore, 1793-1798, was the next Gover- 
nor-General. He meant to follow a 
Adopts the policy non-intervention policy, that is to say, 
of Non-interven- ^gdid not think it right for the English 
^^^' to take sides in the quarrels of Indian 

princes, or in any way to try to arbitrate between them. 
This may at one time have been possible ; but previous 
Governors-General had promised certain rulers, e.g-., 
the Nizam of Haidarabad, to help them in the event of 
their being attacked by another power. The observance 
of a non-intervention policy necessitated inaction, and in 
such cases inaction amounted to a breach of treaties. The 
Marathas were quick to observe that the new Governor- 
General would not act as a check on their ambitions, 
and ^J€y saw in the present a favourable opportunity 
for combining to crush the Nizam of Haidarabad. 


Nana Farnavis led the forces of the Maratha Con- 
federacy, and the Nizam suffered a fatal defeat at the 
Battle of Kurdla, 1795, and was obliged to cede to the 
victors much of his territories, and to pay them three 
crores of rupees. But later experience of Indian politics 
convinced Sir John Shore that a policy of non-interven- 
tion was a mistake. Accordingly, when the misrule of 
Oudh became intolerable, he deposed the Nawab Wazir, 
and set up Saadat Ali in his stead. 

The Marquis of Wellesley, 1798-1805.— Lord 

Mornington, who was afterwards created 
Marquis of Wellesley, succeeded. The Foupth Mysore 
non-intervention policy of Shore had led 
Tipu Sultan to cherish the idea that he might do as he 
pleased without running any risk. He even dared to 
intrigue with the French against the Enghsh. To coun- 
teract their union, Wellesley immediately entered into a 
treaty with the unfortunate Nizam of Haidaradad, by 
which the latter agreed to dismiss all French officers in 
his army, to employ no Frenchmen in his kingdom, and 
to accept an Enghsh army of 6000 sepoys, with English 
commanders and artillery, for his protection against 
external wars. Two years later, his much dreaded ene- 
mies the Marathas, threatened to invade the Deccan, 
and the Nizam, greatly alarmed, asked for an increased 
force, offering to give the Company all he had conquered 
from Tipu, and to submit all his disputes to British 

Meanwhile, encouraged by the presence of Napoleon 
Bonaparte in Egypt (where eventually Nelson so com- 
pletely broke the power of the French), Tipu invited 
the French to join him in waging war upon the English. 
Wellesley felt that no time was to be lost, and support- 
ed by the Nizam and the Marathas, he promptly sent 
General Harris into Mysore. Tipu's army was defeated 
at Malvelli, and his capital Seringapatam was b-^o/eged 
and taken (1800). Tipu himself was slain in the breach 


by which the British entered the city. So ended the 
Fourth (and last) Mysore war. Kanara, Coimbatore, 
Darapuram, and some other portions of Mysore were 
annexed ; Gooty and Gurramkonda were made over to 
the Nizam, and what remained of Tipu's dominions was 
given to Krishna Raj Wadiar, the lawful representative 
of the old Hindu Rajas of Mysore, whom Haidar Ali 
had dispossessed. Thus not only was a troublesome 
neighbour blotted out, but also French influence received 
another fatal blow. 

While war was preparing between Tipu Sultan and 

the English, Muhammad Ali, the Nawab 
Oudh and oUier ^^. ^^^^ Karnatic, thought he would secure 
States. himself by joining what appeared to 

him to be the stronger side. And so 
he had entered into negotiations with Tipu. For thus 
forgetting his treaty obligations to the Company, 
on the conclusion of the late war, the entire civil and 
military government of the Karnatic was assumed b}'^ 
the English, who, on Muhammad Ali's death, allowed his 
heir one-fifth of the annual revenues. At the same time 
by the consent of the princes of Tanjore and Surat these 
territories practically passed into the hands of the 
Company. The province of Oudh had always been the 
cause of more or less anxiety ; for beside its own 
unsettled internal condition, it was the only door through 
which the British possessions in Bengal could be invaded. 
A threatened invasion by Shah Zeman, brought things to 
a head, and feeling that the Nawab Wazir, Saadat Ali, 
could not possibly repel the invader, Wellesley demanded 
of the Wazir that he should pay for the maintenance of 
a larger British subsidiary army for the protection of 
Oudh. After some resistance the Wazir signed the Treaty 
of Lucknow, in 1801, by which he ceded the Doab and 
Rohilkhand to form a barrier between Oudh and enemies 
from the north, and to pay for the up-keep of the 
incr ease d British force in Oudh. Whatever may be 
thoughT,of Wellesley's dealings with the Wazir, he at 


any rate was satisfied with the reflection that whereas 
he had found Oudh a danger to the British in India, he 
had converted it into a safeguard and a support. And 
as we look into the past we are forced to the conclusion 
that if Wellesley had at this time taken complete control 
of Oudh, perhaps the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 would 
never have occurred. 

On the death of Nana Fa mavis, in 1800, there was 
a general scramble among the members 
Treaty of of the Maratha Confederacy for supreme 

assein power. Now Holkar prevailed over 

Sindhia, and now Sindhia triumphed over Holkar ; and 
between the two, the Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was in a 
very difficult position. In 1802, he was in the power 
of Sindhia, so that when Holkar defeated his rival, and 
entered Poona he made Warnak Rao Peshwa. Baji 
Rao II fled to Bassein, and there appealed to the 
English for help. His petition was favourably received, 
and he signed the Treaty of Bassein by which it was 
agreed that an English force was to be always retained 
in the Peshwa's dominions ; that part of these dominions 
was to be given to the Company for the maintenance 
of this force ; and that the 'peshwa would enter upon 
neither treaties nor wars without the approval of the 
English. This Treaty of Bassein marks an important 
stage in the history of the British in India ; for whereas 
previously to it there had existed a Biiiish Empire in 
India, the treaty gave the Company the Empire of 


As soon as the Marathas found that the exiled 
Peshwa had been taken under the pro- 
w^^^lsol^^^^^ teclion of the Company they were alarm- 
war, i»u . ^^^ ^^^^ forgetting their' own petty 

jealousies and differences, they made a strong combina- 
tion against the common foe whose armies had subdued 
the Nizam and crushed Tipu. Under the protection of 
the English, Baji Rao re-entered Poona, and^so the 
Maratha chiefs were brought to bay. General Sir Arthur 

ChXII] governors-general after HASTINGS. 183 

Wellesley (brother to the Governor-General, and better 
known in history as the great Duke of Wellington, who 
won the Battle of Waterloo), took Ahraadnagar, and, 
while Holkar kept aloof in Malwa, uncertain how to 
act, defeated the combined forces of Sindhia and Bhonsla 
at Assaye, and the army of the latter at Argaon. The 
fortress of Gawilgarh was next captured, and Bhonsla, 
laying down arms, signed the Treaty of Deogaon, by 
which among other things he gave up all claims to chant 
from the Nizam, and ceded a tract of country including 
Cuttack. Thus ended the war in the Deccan. Mean- 
while, the army of Sindhia, under the French general, 
Perron, held out in Northern India where General Lake 
took Aligarh, and won the Battle of Delhi. After releas- 
ing the aged Emperor, Shah Alam, from the imprison- 
ment which he had experienced for some years, at the 
hands of the Marathas, Lake added the capture of Agra 
to his previous successes, and finally annihilated the 
army of Sindhia at the Battle of Laswari. This chieftain 
had no alternative but to come to terms, and he signed 
the Treaty of Surji Arjangaon, by which he gave the 
English the tract of land between the Ganges and the 
Jumna, Baroch, as well as other portions of his dominions, 
including Ahmadnagar, which was made over to the 
Peshwa, Baji Rao II. Moreover, as the French had 
assisted him in fighting, he was obliged to contract never 
to entertain the subjects of any nation at war with the 
English. So concluded the Second Maratha War, which 
began and ended in 1803. 

But though Bhonsla and Sindhia had been humbled, 
Holkar had yet to be disposed of. He 
had not taken any part in the Second war^iSOS^fsM 
Maratha War ; but he had been by no ' 

means idle. He had employed the interval in gathering 
together an army of 80,000 trained soldiers, and when 
he considered himself strong enough to take the field, 
even against the English, he began to ravage Malwa 
and kaj^jitana. Now, the Rajput chiefs were British 


allies, and the only reply he gave to remonstrances from 
Calcutta was to sack Ajmir. War was now inevitable. 
Accordingly, three British armies moved against him 
from different directions. Lake advanced from Delhi ; 
Colonel Murray from Gujarat, and Colonel Monson from 
Central India. Monson, worsted in every engagement, 
was obliged to retreat to Agra, but Murray gained pos- 
session of Indore, Holkar's capital. Holkar tiien laid 
siege to Delhi, but retired on the approach of Lake. 
The English army then triumphed at Farukhabad and 
Dig ; but the attempt to take the fortress of Bhartpur, 
whose Raja had deserted the English for Holkar, failed, 
and its Raja was given favourable terms. The progress 
of the war, however, had convinced the Gaekwar of 
Baroda that the Enghsh were irresistible, and he entered 
into a subsidiary alliance with the Company, Holkar 
was now the only member of the Maratha Confederacy 
who was outside such an alliance, and though he was 
single-handed in the strife, he so bravely kept the field 
that Sindhia and Bhonsla were encouraged to throw off" 
their alliance with the British. By this time the Court 
of Directors had grown weary of Wellesley's ceaseless 
wars, and recalled him. But in order to trace the present 
war to its close let us anticipate events. When, on the 
death of Lord Cornwallis, Sir George Barlow came as 
Governor-General, in 1805, he brought with him the dis- 
tinct order that peace should be made without delay. 
And so, although Holkar could not have held out much 
longer, the war was concluded on the easiest terms by 
Barlow, who to pacify Sindhia gave him Gohud and 

In the time of Akbar, it will be remembered that 
peace had been introduced by the presence of one domi- 
nant emperor, aud Wellesley was convinced that the 
only means by which peace could again be secured, was 
by some one power again becoming supreme. He deter- 
mined that the English should be that power.^and his 
administration was guided by the leading Jdea. He 


therefore devised the system of Subsidiary 
AlHances. Every native state entering The System of 
into such an alliance paid for the pre- freatfe^.^^ 
sence within it of a body of British 
troops for the preservation of internal order, and for its 
protection against external foes. It also maintained a 
contingent of native soldiers to act with the British 
forces in times of emergency. It engaged to have no 
political dealings with other powers except in concert 
with the English Government, and undertook to submit 
to British arbitration all disputes with aliens. Thus in 
point of fact, in return for protection, all subsidiary 
states placed themselves in a position of dependence 
upon the East India Company. 

When Wellesley came to India, what with Tipu 
Sultan, and the French, and the Marathas, the land was 
rent by war. Wellesley asserted British dominancy 
over them. By his aggressive policy he destroyed the 
Muhammadan power of the south. By drawing into 
Subsidiary Alliances every member of the Maratha Con- 
federacy, excepting only Holkar, he w n 1 ' 
created a system of imperial rule, and Wopk. ^ 
acquired for England the Empire of India, 
thereby extinguishing the last lingering hopes of the 
French and the Dutch in the East. For this achievement 
he holds a high place among the architects of British 
fortunes in India. He changed the character of the East 
India Company from a mere body of traders to a Govern- 
ment with imperial responsibihties, and he has therefore 
been aptly called " the Great Pro-Consul of India." 

Lord Copnwallis (again) 1805 — Cornwallis, whose 
previous administration had proved his desire to 
promote peace and to develop the resources of the 
British possessions in India, was sent out to succeed 
Wellesley. He had clear instructions to terminate the 
wars, with the Marathas ; but before he could accomplish 
anythmg he died at Ghazipur, and was buried there. 



Sir George Barlow, 1805-1807. — It lias already 
been mentioned that as soon as Sir George Barlow came 
he made peace with Holkar, and to such extremes 
did he carry the non-intervention policy, that when 
Sindhia and Holkar took their revenge on the 
Rajputs, he left them to the tender mercies of the 
Marathas — Wellesley's compact with them notwith- 

At Vellore the sepoys grew discontented, and, 
. urged by the descendants of Tipu, they 
1806 ^ ^^^"^ massacred 113 European soldiers in the 
garrison The mutiny was easily put 
down, and Tipu's family was removed to Bengal. Sir 
George Barlow was recalled as having been an unsuc- 
cessful ruler. 

Lord Minto, 1807-1813. — Encouraged by the in- 
activity of the English, who now 
Central India allowed the non-intervention policy to 
regulate all their dealings with native 
rulers, bands of outlaws (the most notorious of whom 
were the Pathans and the Pindaris) began to flourish 
in Western and Central India, where ihey devasta- 
ted the countr\% and made the people homeless. 
But when Bandalkhand, which bordered on British 
territory, became the scene of pillage and the murder of 
inoffensive people, Lord Minto thought it was better 
to put down these outlaws than to wait till they actually 
raided British territory. He accordingly sent troops 
after them, and in 18 12 they were suppressed for the 
time being. Kalinjar was taken, and the country pacified. 
At the same time a protective treaty was made with 
Ranjit Singh of Lahore, by which the latter bound 
himself not to interfere with the Sardars of the Cis- 
Sutlej State. 

War was at this time going on betv^'een England 
and France, and it was feared that the French would 
make one more effort to drive the Engli^li'^ut of 


India. As a safeguard, Lord Minto sent 
embassies to the courts of Sindh, Kabul, |"^5h^^lf^u*9 
and Persia, whose rulers in consequence and Per^a 
engaged to have no dealings with the 
French, nor give them any assistance. He also made a 
friendly treaty v^'ith the Baluchi chiefs. But it was felt 
that something more definite than this should be done 
to check the French and the Dutch, who had begun to 
waylay British ships on the high seas, and plunder tiiem. 
Mauritius and its adjacent islands belonged to France, 
and from them the piratical vessels started on their 
errands of spoliation. To put a stop to the loss thus 
caused to the Company's trade, Lord Minto sent an ex- 
pedition agamst Mauritius, and took it and its neighbour- 
ing islands from the French. Similarly the Dutch were 
stripped of their possessions in the East Indies. 

Another important event took place in 18 13. 
Hitherto, it will be remembered, the East 
India Company had held the monopoly Abolition of 
of Indian trade. That is to say, no private Indian '"^Mono- 
person or body of merchants was allowed poly, 1813. 
to carry on commerce with India. When 
Parliament now renewed the Charter, it withdrew 
from the Company the exclusive right which it had 
hitherto enjoyed, of trading with this country, but did 
not deprive it of its monopoly in tea or of trade with 

Lord Moira, (afterwards Marquis of Hastings), 
1813-1823,— On the retirement of Minto, 
Lord Moira succeeded. He found that he The Marathas, 
was called upon to deal with a certain palhln's.' ^^^ 
class of dangerous brigands and warlike 
men, known respectively as the Pindaris and the Pathans. 
Added to the restlessness which these enemies to peace 
created, there was the growing turbulence of the 
Marathas. The weakness shown in Lord Minto's dc-al- 
ings'^wfth Holkar and Sindhia, encouraged in the Marathas 


the notion that the time was near at hand when they 
would avenge the past, expel the English from India, 
and once more restore the days of Sivaji. Their acts of 
defiant lawlessness knew no bounds. In the Pindaris 
and the Pathans they found allies ready to receive their 
assistance, and quick to do their bidding. The Pindaris 
flourished in the valley of the Narbada. They were 
descended in most instances from soldiers who had been 
in the Mughal army during its palmy days. The robber 
instinct was so strong in them that they could not lead 
peaceful lives. Under the leadership of chiefs like 
Wasil Muhammad, Karim Khan, and Chitu, they yearly 
set out on their hardy ponies to burn, plunder and 
destroy. Their depredations extended from Mysore to 
the basin of the Jumna. They had no form of govern- 
ment nor any definite policy, but joined Holkar or 
Sindhia as best suited them, or as either was the more 
likely to win. In 1809, they had raided Gujarat; in 
1 81 2 they had pillaged Mirzapur ; and now, in 181 6, 
they came like a swarm of locusts into the Northern 
Circars, and Moira felt it was time to extirpate them. 

The Pathans were a more respectable and better 
organised body of freebooters. The Pindaris attacked 
villages and their helpless inhabitants ; the Pathans 
preyed upon governments and princes. They were better 
disciplined than the Pindaris, and rendered obedience 
to their leaders, chief among whom was Amir Khan. 
They devoted their energies especially to Rajputana. 

What with the Marathas, the Pindaris, and the 
Pathans, Central India was indeed in a sad plight. The 
native states were demoralised ; society was disorganised; 
the peasants and artisans had no heart to carry on the 
duties of their daily hfe. While robber bands infested 
the country, the local armies themselves existed only to 
trample on the people. In a word, government there 
was none. Like Wellesley, Hastings felt that the only 
salvation of India lay in the arising of some one para- 
mount power whose mighty arm would be strong en'ough 

Ch.XII] governors-general after HASTINGS. 189 

to keep under the warring elements and protect the 
peasantry — a power which by alHances and force of arms 
would build up an empire even greater than that of the 
Mughals. But before he could dispose of the Pindaris 
and the Pathans, his attention was demanded in another 

Of late the hardy mountaineers of Nepal, known as 
the Gurkhas, had taken to making in- 
cursions into the valley of the Ganges {g^J^igSs ^^^' 
which belonged to the English. When 
the Governor-General proposed to fix their frontiers, 
they became more daring and defiant, and as they con- 
tinued their inroads into British territory, it was evident 
that nothing short of war would persuade them to mend 
their ways. Accordingly, the deep jungles of the 
Himalayas were entered by a British army, under com- 
mand of General Ochterlony. The rugged mountain 
sides were of great advantage to the Gurkhas who were 
quite at home in the precipices and ravines of the 
greatest mountain range in the world. The war opened 
unfavourably to the English ; for although General 
Gillespie took the fort of Kalanga, they experienced a 
reverse at Jaitak. The occupation of a portion of the 
Terai, and the co-operation of the Raja of Sikkim, 
partially compensated for this misfortune. 

The news of the failure of Enghsh arms in the war 
against the Gurkhas naturally encouraged the Marathas, 
who, like the Pathans and the Sikhs, began to give fresh 
signs of activity. The Pindaris, too, finding the Enghsh 
sufficiently occupied with the Gurkhas, prepared to 
make a raid into British territory. Altogether the out- 
look was far from pleasant But internal dissensions 
weakened the counsels of the Marathas, and a threaten- 
ed attack on Ranjit Singh, the leader of the Sikhs, by 
the Amir of Kabul, prevented the Marathas and the 
Sikhs from entering upon hostilities against the English. 
The' rfhdaris did not feel that single-handed they could 
defy the Enghsh, and so they too held back from doing 


any mischief. Hastings, with a feeling of relief, bent 
all his energies to the war with the Gurkhas. To cause 
a diversion, with the help of Rohilla levies, he invaded 
the Nepalese province of Kumaun, and gained possession 
of it, together with its many strongholds. The tide of 
war now turned in favour of the English, and their 
further successes gave them possession of all Nepal 
west of the river Kali, and of Jaitak. The Gurkhas 
came to terms, and signed the Treaty of Segauli (1816). 
By it they were required to cede all the country 
conquered by the English from the Sutlej to the Kali, 
and that portion of the Terai between the Kali and the 
Gandak. But the mountaineers did not ratify the treaty 
till General Ochterlony marched within 20 miles of 
Katmandu, and captured Hariharpur. Then the in- 
dependence of the Sikkim Raja was assured, and he and 
the Nawab Wazir of Oudh were rewarded for the support 
they had given. A frontier was traced out and marked 
by pillars of masonry, and in lieu of an annual subsidy 
of two lakhs of rupees a greater part of the Terai was 
restored to Nepal. Ever since this time the Gurkhas 
have been loyal to the English. 

Now that the Gurkha War was over, Hastings 
was able to give his attention to the 
gmlapi War, pjndaris, who at this time ravaged the 
Northern Circars and Orissa. His first 
care was to deprive them of allies, and so he entered 
into subsidiary alliances with Malwa, Bhopal, Udaipur, 
Jodhpur, Baji Rao H, (the Peshwa,) and Amir Khan, 
the chief of the Pathans. Hastings himself took com- 
mand of the army, and deprived the Pindaris of the 
help which Sindhia was ready to give them, by making 
the latter come to terms at Gwaliar. The Pindaris, 
from their headquarters in Malwa, had been watching 
the progress of events. Unable any longer to remain 
inactive, they raided Bandelkhand, being led by Wasil 
Muhammad. At the same time the Peshvytt'^and 
Bhonsla assisted them, and the Third Maratha War 

CH.XII] governors-general after HASTINGS. I9I 

began. But Hastings pressed the Pindaris till, in 18 17, 
they were driven out of Malwa and beyond the 
Chambal. They then sued for peace, and have since 
never caused further trouble. To Amir Khan, the 
Pathan leader, the principality of Tonk was given, and 
thus the Pathan organisation came to an end. The 
Rajput Chiets were rewarded for their loyal support, and 
a British Resident was stationed at Ajmir. 

In their anxiety to see the English expelled from 
India, the Maratha Houses combined 
once more, and, as has been said, openly war ISiT-fsiQ.^ 
gave help to the Pindaris. Baji Rao H, 
the Peshvva, throwing aside his treaty, attacked the 
British Residency at Poona. Sindhia was not able to 
do much mischief, for he was still overawed at Gwaliar. 
Bhonsla's contribution to the war was inconsiderable, 
for at the very outset he was reduced to submission, and 
was obliged to cede Berar. Holkar's troops were put 
to flight at Mehidpur, 1817; the young Mulhar Rao 
Holkar became a ward of the Company, and relin- 
quished all claims in Rajputana. Baji Rao H, the 
Peshvva, was driven from Poona, and defeated at Ashta, in 
18 1 9. He then surrendered ; his entire dominions were 
taken from him ; Satara and Kolharpur were restored 
to descendants of Sivaji ; and he remained a state 
prisoner at Cawnpur until his death. The war was 
now over, and the Marathas had been finally crushed. 

With the return of peace, Hastings was able to give 
internal affairs his attention. He ex- „ . , , 
tended the subsidiary system of Welles- "al Melsure" " 
ley, and knitted the various indepen- 
dent states together by entering into alliances with 
them, and the Briti.-h Government of India may be said 
to have at this time received its character — an imperial 
federation of friendly states clustering round one central 
paramount power. Then, with respect to the courts of 
ther^zad, the magistrates were required to perform the 
duties of both judges and collectors of revenue. Hastings 


opened schools for the education of India, and he 
gave freedom to the vernacular press. The result was 
that five native journals began to be printed and pub- 
lished. It is from this time that the moral and intellectual 
advancement of the people of the country has been 
recognised as a duty of the State, and their claim to 
participate in the work of the British Government has 
been held as an axiom. 

Lord Amherst, 1823-1827.— Between the de- 
parture of the Marquis of Hastings and 
Wa? 1824-182? ^^^ arrival of Lord Amherst, there was 
an interval of seven months, during 
which Mr. Adam acted as Governor-General. As soon 
as Amherst arrived he found himself drawn into a war 
with Burma. For some years past the Burmese had 
been disturbing the peace of Eastern India by making 
destructive raids into British territory. Finding that 
active measures were not taken against them, they be- 
came more and more daring, and put a climax to their 
insolence by claiming Chittagong, Dacca, and Murshida- 
bad as being parts of their ancient kingdom. Finally 
they seized and ill-treated British subjects, and it be- 
came evident that nothing short of war would persuade 
them to live at peace with their neighbours. Lord 
Amherst accordingly made preparations for an expedi- 
tion into Burma, and British troops were soon in 
possession of Rangoon and Kemendine. But they 
suffered a defeat at Ramu. This reverse, however, was 
speedily compensated by the conquest, in 1825, of Assam, 
Cachar, and Manipur, and by the occupation of Pegu, 
Arrakan, and Tenasserim. Then came the fall of 
Donabvu, and the capture of Prome. Finding his losses 
thickening around him, the Burmese king thought it 
time to make peace. So he ended the war in 1826 by 
signing the Treaty of Yendabu by which he ceded 
Assam, Arrakan and the coast of Tenasserim. ^.z also 
undertook not to interfere with Manipur, Cachar, and 


Jaintia ; to pay an indemnity of one crore of rupees ; 
and to receive a British Resident at his capital. 

When the Marathas were finally overthrown the 
Raja of Bhartpur arranged with the 
English that his infant son, Balwant Bhartpup? 

Singh, should succeed him. But when Jany., 1827. 

the Raja died in 1825, a cousin of the 
child, Durjan Sal, usurped the throne. Lord Amherst 
at first remonstrated with him ; but, as he remained 
defiant, Lord Combermere was sent to dislodge him 
from Bhartpur. The eyes of all India were turned with 
the keenest interest to this stronghold, for it was con- 
sidered impregnable — more especially as in 1805 Lord 
Lake had failed to take it But it was now captured ; 
Balwant Singh was set on its throne ; and English prestige 
was restored. Lord Amherst improved the occasion by 
going to Delhi, the ancient capital of the Mughals, and 
there issuing a proclamation that the East India Com- 
pany was the paramount power in India. 

Lord William Bentinek, 1828-1835. — Bentinck 
had formerly been Governor of Madras, Re^^^tion of 
and so he had the advantage of some Batta, and the 
knowledge of Indian affairs. The First Admission of 
Burmese War had drained the Com- Jj'jfbnJseJ.yiee.^ 
pany's treasury, and Bentinck's express 
orders from the Court of Directors were to cut down 
expenditure and increase the revenue. He found two 
directions in w^hich a saving might be effected— one in 
the army and the other in the civil service. Hitherto 
soldiers on active service had been given an extra allow- 
ance called Batta, or more correctly Bhatta. For some 
years past the Directors had objected to the pay- 
ment of Batta, and so Bentinck reduced the amount 
of the allowance, in spite of the discontent his order 
created. Furthermore, every appointment in the higher 
gradzc6»f the civil service had hitherto been reserved 
for Englishmen. Bentinck felt that educated Indians 


would do the work efficiently and on much smaller 
salaries. He, therefore, threw open various departments 
of the public services to Indians. This measure, without 
in the smallest degree lowering the efficiency of the civil 
services, resulted in a great reduction of expenditure. 
Then again in casting about for means whereby to 
increase the revenues, Bentinck thought of the opium 
traffic of Malvva. He accordingly made the manufacture 
of opium a government monopoly, and there was an 
immediate addition to the inci me of the Company. 
Having by these measures restored the balance between 
income and expenditure, he was free to work out certain 
important social reforms. 

Owing to the breaking up of such bands of men as 
the Pindaris, and the lack of work for 
of ^Thag-f °" those who had been in the various armies 
of Indian chiefs, the country abounded 
with men for whom a peaceful life had no charm. These 
restless spirits gathered together in Central India, and 
became the terror and curse of the land from Haidarabad 
to Oudh, and from Bandelkhand to Rajputana. They 
went by the name of Thags. Murder was part of 
their creed, and plunder their sole occupation. They 
wandered from place to place without anything to betray 
who they were. They joined themselves to travellers, 
gained their confidence, suddenly strangled them, and, 
having robbed the corpses, buried them in the jungles. 
With the help of Major Sleeman, Bentnick determined 
to stamp them out. Within six years their bands were 
broken up ; several thousands of them were captured ; 
many of them were hanged, and more of them were 

For centuries it had been the practice of a Hindu 

widow to burn herself with her hus- 

Suppression band's corpse. The English had always 

InfanUei(&"^ revolted against such a cruel custom, and 

Bentinck though t it ought to be pi-itdo wn. 

Leaders of Hindu society, hke Dwarkanath Tagore and 

Ch.XII] governors-general after HASTINGS. 195 

Rammohan Roy, asserted that it was opposed to the 
teachings and spirit of Hinduism. As a matter of fact it 
had already been disallowed by the French, the Dutch, 
and the Danes, in their Indian territories, and even in 
Enghsh possessions where a firm hand ruled. Bentinck, 
after much careful consideration, made a law by which 
any one assisting at a Sati, as the practice of widow- 
burning was called, or any one concealing a Sati, was 
guilty in the sight of the law, and was liable to severe 
punishment. He also forbade the murder of infant 
daughters. In this humane work he received valuable 
help from many distinguished English officers, including 
Colonel John Sutherland, by whose influence with the 
bigoted Rajput Chiefs these cruel practices were peace- 
ably suppressed in Rajputana, where they had been 
most prevalent. 

On the eve of his retirement from the country Lord 
Amherst had visited Simla which had 
Simla and recently been acquired. In 1830 Ben- 
arjee ing. tjnck purchased the remainder of the hill 

from the Maharaja of Patiala, and made Simla the 
summer residence of the Governor-General. Five years 
later he bought Darjeeling from the Raja of Sikkim, and 
thus he gave British India two of its most popular hill 

Company's Pice of 1833. 

In 1833 Parliament renewed the Charter of the 
par,owoi*!.f tha East India Company for another twenty 
ChS?S,1833 years. By the terms of the new Charter 


the Company retired from trade, and became a Govern- 
ment pure and simple. The monopoly of the trade 
of India had already been withdrawn (1813), and now 
also trade with China was thrown open to all comers. 
The administrative affairs of the Company were placed 
under the control of Parliament, which guaranteed it 
against all losses. The country has greatly benefited 
by this Charter; for since its time the Government has 
not been cramped by commercial considerations when 
these have clashed with the interests of the people. 
The welfare of Indian subjects, and not dividends 
to shareholders, has become the only anxiety of our 

In every age and in every country, the language of the 

rulers or the learned has been the official 
th?^^0ffleia1^ language of the country. In the early 
Language. Hindu period we have seen that this was 

the case with Sanskrit ; and when the 
English came in the time of the Mughals, they found that 
Persian was the language of the courts of the country. 
Though the British had become the paramount power 
they had not altered the legal language ; but Bentinck 
thought it time that Persian should give way to English. 
Accordingly ini835 he made English the official language 
of British India, and a knowledge of it a qualification for 
admission into the public services. From 18 13 all teach- 
ing in Indian schools had been through the vernacular 
languages. But from this time English began to be 
taught in the higher classes of schools ; and in a country, 
such as ours, with its numerous creeds and tongues, the 
introduction of a common language has done perhaps 
even more than the railway and telegraph system to 
bind the peoples of India and Great Britain into one 
great brotherhood. Had Indians continued to be taught 
only Sanskrit, and Persian, and Arabic, they could never 
have taken a share in the Government of India as they 
are doing to-day. "^ ' 

The time, however, had come for Bentinck to lay 


down his office. How grateful our country Retirement of 
is to him may be read on the monument hfs"serviees'"o 
which chiefly Hindu subscriptions raised India, 
to him in Calcutta :— " Who never forgot 
that the end of Government is the happiness of the 
governed ; who abolished cruel rites ; who effaced 
humiliating distinctions ; who gave liberty to the ex- 
pression of public opinion ; whose constant study it 
was to elevate the intellectual and moral character of 
the natives committed to his charge." 

Sir Charles Metcalfe, 1835-1836.— Pending the 

arrival of Bentinck's successor, Sir 
Charles Metcalfe took up the duties of {hefflan P^" ^^ 
Governor-General. He gave freedom ^^^^' 

to the Indian Press ; that is to say, authors of books 
and editors of newspapers were no longer required to 
obtain permission to publish what they wrote. This 
was a great gain ; for now every one could say what was 
in his mind, and Government received much help from 
what the public thought on matters of common interest. 

Lord Auckland, 1836-1842 — When Lord Auckland 
arrived it was feared that Russia had 
designs upon India, and that the Tsar His Policy. 

was therefore making friendly advances 
to Dost Muhammad, the Amir of Afghanistan. 
Desirous of gaining the alliance of the Amir, and so of 
interposing a friendly power between Russia and India, 
the Governor-General sent an ambassador to his Court. 
But largely through mismanagement of the negotia- 
tions, the embassy ended in the declaration of a war, 
whose object was to dethrone Dost Muhammad and 
to set upon the Kabul throne Shah Shuja, a descendant 
of Ahmad Shah Durani. Shah Shuja was then an exile 
under British protection in Ludhiana, 
and as soon as the help of Ranjit Singh ^^^ Afghan 
was secfi^ed, a large army was marched 


into Afghanistan, and Shah Shuja was proclaimed Amir 
at Kandahar. But he was not acceptable to the 
Afghans. The war had therefore to be carried further 
into the heart of Afghanistan, and Kabul was taken. 
Ranjit Singh died at this time, and the English troops 
unassisted by the Sikhs, marched on Ghazni which fell 
before them. Shah Shuja's rival, Dost Muhammad, 
fled across the Balkan frontier ; but for all that he 
did not give up fighting, for he had manv followers 
who preferred him to Shah Shuja. It was not wise 
to force a king on a people who did not want him ; 
and the result was that for two years the English had 
to hold Afghanistan by the presence of an army and of 
a Resident — Sir William MacNaghten — at Kabul. But 
in the hearts of the Afghans there still was war ; and 
when, in 1840, Dost Muhammad reappeared with an 
army, large numbers joined him. Eventually he sur- 
rendered himself to the English, and was sent to India 
(Nov. 1840) on a yearly pension. But the Atghans 
were by no means overthrown. Suddenly they mur- 
dered Sir Alexander Burnes, the Poli ical Agent. Dost 
Muhammad's eldest son, Akbar Khan, invited Mac- 
Naghten to a friendly meeting, and while saluting him, 
treacherously murdered him (1841). General Sale too 
was soon hard pressed, being indeed cooped up in Jalal- 
abad. On all sides the enemv, led by Akbar Khan, 
thickened, and the English officers at Kabul, to some 
extent panic-stricken, were glad to accept any terms 
offered them. The troops there, commanded by Major 
Pottinger, were allowed to depart on condition that 
they abandoned their guns and treasure ; that they paid 
a heavy fine ; and that they gave four officers as hostages. 
If they satisfied these demands they were promised a safe 
retreat. It was the depth of winter. The country was a 
net-work of mountnins. The British soldiers were ill 
clad, and many of them perished in the severe cold. To 
add to their sufifeiings the faithless enemv began to fire 
upon them from the heights above. They had .fTo means 

Ch.XII.] governor-general after HASTINGS. 199 

of defending themselves, for they had given up their guns. 
They were now (January, 18^2 ) in the Kurd Kabul Pass, 
and their case was desperate. Akbar Khan made a 
proposal. It was that the ladies in the English camp 
should be placed under his care. There seemed no 
alternative but to consent. So the women were com- 
mitted to his protection. But the worst had yet to 
come. On the following day, as the British were 
marching, the enemy Fell on them in a narrow pass, and 
cut them to pieces. Of the 16,500 who had started in 
retreat from Kabul one solitary man. Dr. Brydon, reached 
Jalalabad to tell the story of the sad fate of the Indian 
army. Never had such a disaster overtaken British arms 
in the East. The only bright spots in the surround- 
ing gloom were Jalalabad, where General Sale was 
making a brave defence, and Kandahar, where General 
Nott was nobly holding out. The Home Government 
blamed Lord Auckland for the course of the war, and 
he was recalled. 

Lord EllenboPOUg"h, 1842-1844, was sent to re- 
trieve British honour. He despatched 
General Pollock, who, taking AH Masjid, ^['j?co1.e!uded 
pressed through the Khaibar Pass into 
Aighanistan. The enemy retreated from Jalalabad, and 
raised the siege of Kandahar. Shah Shuja was, how- 
ever, at this time, murdered, and Akbar Khan assumed 
the reins of government on behalf of his exiled father, 
Dost Muhammad. Generals Pollock and Nott moved 
from different directions against Kabul, destroying every 
fortress in the line of their march, including the fortress 
ofGhazni, whose Engli.-h garii^on had at an earlier 
stage of the war been almost annihilated. Kabul was 
then taken, and its bazar was blown up. The Afghans 
were now in a mood for peace. It was clear to Ellen- 
borough that Dost Muhammad was the only man who 
could govern them, and as they wanted him to be their 
king, he*vas released from his imprisonment in Calcutta, 


and reinstated on the throne of Afghanistan. The 
British troops were then withdrawn, and the condition 
of affairs before the war was restored, except that the 
EngHsh had forfeited the friendship of the Afghans. 

No sooner was the war with Afghanistan brought 
to a close than Ellenborough had to turn 
S^dh'^^lSs ^^ ^^^ attention to Sindh, whose rulers were 
Baluchi Chiefs. Lord Minto, it will be 
remembered, had made a friendly treaty with them ; but 
the reverses which the British had experienced in 
Afghanistan encouraged them to try to rid themselves 
of their obligations to the Enghsh. They, therefore, 
made an attack on the British Residency. Sir Charles 
Napier conducted the war for Ellenborough, and signally 
defeated the Amir of Sindh in the battles of Miani and 
Haidarabad. The Chiefs of Sindh were sent as prisoners 
to Benares, and Sindh itself was annexed. 

Scarcely had the war with Sindh been concluded when 
Ellenborough was called upon to interfere 
Gwaliap taken jj^ ^^^ affairs of Gwaliar. A dispute be- 
Proteetion. tween rival chiefs as to who should be 

Regent to the young Sindhia, plunged 
Gwaliar into civil war, and the danger was lest there 
should be a general rising in Northern India. Ellen- 
borough felt this must be averted ; and so he sent Lord 
Gough with an army against the contending parties in 
Gwahar. Gough won the battles of Maharajpur and 
Panniar and thus put himself in a position to settle the 
disputes which had involved the state in war. No 
regent was appointed ; but a council of six Maratha 
nobles was created to manage the affairs of the state, 
and an English force was stationed in Gwaliar to ensure 
the continuance of peace. 

The Directors at home did not approve of the 
annexation of Sindh, and Ellenborough was recalled. 
However, to have restored the Company's prestige in 
Afghanistan was an achievement with which he had 
every reason to be satisfied. 



Lord Hardingfe, 1844-1848.— However much they 
may have wished it, it seemed impossible for the 
English to abide in India at peace with their neighbours. 
Scarcely was one war over than they found themselves 
face to face with another. On arrival, Hardinge re- 
cognised that a Sikh war was not very far off. 

It will be remembered that in an earlier chapter 
we traced the history of the Sikhs up to the time when 
Dhulip Singh was placed on the throne, with the Khalsa 
for his council and his mother as Regent. Well, the 
Queen-Regent and the Khalsa were soon convinced that 
they could not control the army, and 
that, if it were not engaged against a fgJI^l^'^*^ ^^^' 
foreign foe, it would turn upon the 
Khalsa itself, and plunge the Punjab into civil war. 
The army was accordingly, without provocation, led 
across the Sutlej into English territory, and so began the 
First Sikh War. Hardinge had, however, in anticipation 
of the event, moved his forces unobserved towards the 
Sikh frontier, and was therefore ready for the Sikhs. 
He immediately proclaimed the Cis-Sutlej States an- 
nexed, and within six days of the Sikhs crossing the 
Sutlej, Sir Hugh Gough, the commander-in-chief, with 
Lord Hardinge as second in command, defeated them 
in the battle of Mudki. The English army in quick 
succession added the victories of Ferozeshah (1845), 
AHwal, and Sobraon (1846). The loss of life at 
Sobraon was ghastly. The Sikhs were driven back 
to a bridge over the Sutlej. The bridge gave away, and 
thousands of them were precipitated into the river. 
Hundreds perished ; but not a man surrendered. The 
English then pushed on to Lahore, and a deputation of 
Sikh chiefs, headed by Gulab Singh, sued for peace. 
The Treaty of Lahore was then signed. By it, though 
Dhulip Singh was retained on the throne with his 
mother as Queen-Regent, the tract of country between 
the B'2^ and the Sutlej was ceded to the English ; one- 
and-a-hxlf crores of rupees were paid to them as an 


indemnity for the war ; Gulab Singh was set up as inde- 
pendent Raja of Kashmir in return for 75 lakhs of rupees ; 
and the strength of the Sikh army was reduced. In 
addition Major Henry Lawrence was given a voice in 
the Sikh Durbar, and was left at Lahore in charge of 
political affairs. But Imamuddin, the governor of 
Kashmir, refused to admit Gulab Singh's title to the 
throne of Kashmir. Troops were sent against him, and 
he was obliged to yield. A Second Treaty of Lahore 
was then made. By it the Government of Lahore was 
to be carried on on behalf of the minor Maharaja, Dhulip 
Singh, by a council of native nobles under the direction 
of a British Resident, while Gulab Singh became a 
vassal of the British as well as Maharaja of Kashmir. 

In 181 9 the Nawab Wazir of Oudh had thrown 

over his vassalage to the Mughal Emperor, and had 

assumed the title of King of Oudh. But his misrule 

seemed to call for rebuke, and Hardinge 

Misrule. Lord Wellesley s treaty with Saadat Ah 

(made in 1801) and govern his kingdom 
properly, the English would be obliged to interfere in the 
interests of his subjects. 

Before returning to England Hardinge attended to 
other matters. He continued the ex- 
Material ^ cavation of the Ganges Canal, and ear- 
Progress, nestly endeavoured to put down sati, 
infanticide, and human sacrifices among 
the Khonds of Orissa. While he was Governor-General 
the cultivation of tea was begun in Assam, the tax on salt 
was reduced, education in English was systematically 
encouraged, and Indians were more largely admitted 
into the public services. 

Lord Dalhousie, 1848-1856. — The administration 

of Lord Dalhousie, one of the greatest 

FeaWrel-ofDal- of=>'' '')<' Governors-General, «ay be 

housie's Rule. summed up in the three ^^ords — 


Acquisition, Consolidation, Development. He annexed, 
perhaps, more territory than any of his predecessors. 
He knitted together the scattered British provinces by 
a net-v^ork of railways and telegraph wires. He did 
much to increase the trade and the material prosperity 
of the country. 

Though overthrown in the First Sikh War, the 
Sikhs were by no means crushed. The 
several divisions of the Punjab had been wap,"l848-1849. 
placed under Governors, or Diwans, who 
were responsible to the British Resident at Lahore. 
This officer called upon Diwan Mulraj, governor of 
Multan, to render an account of his administration. 
Mulraj preferred to resign. On this Mr. Vans Agnew 
and Lieutenant Anderson were sent to take over the 
government and fortress of Multan. But it had all been 
arranged beforehand, and as soon as these officers as- 
sumed control of public affairs they were murdered. 
News of this reached Lieutenant Herbert Edwardes at 
Dera-Fateh-Khan. But the rebellion of one man had 
now grown into a revolt of the Sikh Confederacy. The 
Afghans, smarting under their late humiliation, readily 
lent their assistance to the Sikhs. Lord Gough did not 
at first grasp the seriousness of the position, and he 
omitted to make preparations on a sufficiently large 
scale. However, Lieutenant Edwardes held the enemy 
in check till Gough's army took the field. Multan was 
then captured, 1848, and Mulraj gave himself up to the 
English. In the following year the Sikhs were defeated 
at Chillianwala and Gujarat. They then submitted 
unconditionally at Rawal Pindi, (1849), and the Afghan 
contingent was pursued to the Khaibar Pass. The war 
over, Dhulip Singh was given a liberal pension ; the 
Punjab was annexed, and put under a Board of Control 
consisting of Henry Lawrence, John Lawrence, and 
Charles Mansel. Moreover, the Sikh army was disband- 
ed, b'lt^its best men were formed into a military police. 
The Kh^alsa also was broken up, and its members reduced 


to the position of private persons. Ruled by the Sikhs 
the Punjab had groaned under the burden of forty-eight 
taxes ; Dalhousie reduced them to six. A careful survey 
was made of the province, and the land tax was fairly 
levied. In other directions the development of the 
province was assisted. The Bari Duab Canal was ex- 
cavated ; the Grand Trunk Road was extended across 
the Punjab ; and education was attended to by the state. 
In 1852, the Board of Control at Lahore was dissolved, 
and John Lawrence was made Chief Commissioner of the 
Punjab. Grateful for the consideration shown them in 
the hour of their humiliation, the Sikhs stood by the 
English throughout the Mutiny of 1857. 

The Raja of Sikkim, in 1849, seized some English 

travellers. As a punishment Sikkim 
Sikkim annexed. ^,^3 ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^-^ 

The King of Burma, in violation of the Treaty of 
Yendabu ill-treated British subjects at 
Second B^urmese Rangoon, and, when called upon to 
' " redress the wrongs of Enghsh mer- 

chants, he took no notice of the demand. Friendly 
negotiations having had no effect, in 1852 an expedition 
was sent against him, and in a short time Martaban, 
Rangoon, Prome, and Pegu were taken from him. 
Dalhousie stopped the war at this stage, being of opinion 
that the Burmese King had been sufficiently punished. 
A proclamation annexing all Lower Burma was pub- 
lished, and the greater part of the English army was 
withdrawn. From this time the southern part of Burma 
has prospered. 

According to a long established Indian practice, 
dating from the time of Akbar and Aurangzeb, when 
a Hindu prince held his principality in subordination 
to, or as a gift from, the paramount power, in event 
of failure of male heirs of his body, he was allowed 
to adopt a son ; but the condition of this 
of ^Lanse''^'^^ son's succession to the principality- was 
that the adoption should have obtained 

Ch.XII] governors-general after HASTINGS. 205 

the consent of the paramount power. In the absence of 
that consent, the personal property of the deceased prince 
was inherited by the adopted son, but not the princi- 
pahty, which reverted to the paramount State. At all 
times the latter reserved to itself the right of withholding 
its consent to an adoption, and, when the consent was 
not given, of resuming the subordinate principalit)\ 
This is known as the Doctrine of Lapse. 

Lord Dalhousie came out with instructions to 
strictly follow the Doctrine of Lapse, 
and, by resuming all petty states to Jexes^^many 
which there were no heirs of the body, states, 
to remove intermediate powers between 
the British Government and the people, w^herever it 
would benefit the latter. In carrying out this principle 
Lord Dalhousie annexed several minor states. The Raja 
of Satara on his deathbed adopted a son, 1848, without 
the consent of the British Government. The child was 
given his adoptive father's personal property, but not 
the subordinate State of Satara, which was annexed. 
The matter was referred to the Court of Directors, who 
ruled that " the territory of Satara has lapsed, by failure 
of heirs, to the Power who bestowed it, and we desire 
that it be annexed to the British dominions." On simi- 
lar grounds, Sambalpur, Jhansi, Udaipur, Tanjore, parts 
of Sindh, Cachar, Orissa, and Nagpur were annexed, and 
the pension of the Nawab of the Karnatic and of Nana 
Sahib, the adopted son of Baji Rao II, lapsed, while 
for arrears of payments due for the maintenance of 
British troops quartered in his territories, the Nizam 
of Haidarabad ceded the Assigned Districts to the 

The annexation of Oudh was for different reasons. 
The province of Oudh had been guaran- 
teed to the Nawab Wazir, (from 1819 oSdhffsse!^ 
known as the King of Oudh) by Welles- 
ley's ^reaty of 180 1, only so long as he ruled Oudh well. 
Bentinck, Auckland and Hardinge had each in turn 



warned the King of Oudh, that if he did not reform his 
government, the Company would be obliged to interfere. 
Dalhousie felt that action could no longer be delayed. 
Things had come to such a pass that he wrote to the 
Court of Directors, "were it not for the constant presence 
of British troops at Lucknow, the people of Oudh 
would speedily work their own deliverance." He re- 
commended that " while the king should be permitted 
to retain his royal title and rank, he should be required 





to vest the whole civil and military administration of 
Oudh in the hands of the Company." The Court of 
Directors did not approve of his leniency, and ordered 
him, before he laid down office, to annex Oudh. It was 
accordingly annexed in 1856. 

It was Dalhousie's great anxiety that a change of 
masters should not injure the subjects. 
He everywhere set the rents and the ad- KviSfels^^^^^" 
ministration ofjusticeonaproperfooting, 
but he nowhere interfered with the customs, religions 
and habits of the people. These last continued in the 
full enjoyment of their rights, and in addition were freed 
from the oppression which they had only too often ex- 
perienced from native rulers. District Officers were 
appointed to preside over the law courts, over the 
gathering-in of revenue, and over the police. Most of 
the newly-acquired territories were made into Non- 
Regulation Provinces. 

Having completed his work of acquisition, Dalhousie 
began to consolidate. He united the 
scattered parts of the British possessions Consolidation 
u -I ju4^u^i u ^ and Material 

by railways and by the telegraph system. Progress. 

He introduced cheap postage, and con- 
structed roads, canals, court-houses, jails, and other pubhc 
buildings. Education was made a department of the 
state, and government officers were appointed to look 
after the primary and secondary schools that sprang up 
everywhere. Lord Halifax, in 1854, drew up a scheme 
of education based upon the modern vernacular lan- 
guages of India, and its adoption eventually led to the 
founding of Universities at Calcutta, Madras, and 
Bombay. Trade and industries were encouraged in 
every possible way. Slavery was abolished, and agri- 
culture was promoted. Appointments in the Civil Service 
were thrown open to the natives of India, and Indian 
members were admitted to the Legislative Council. 
Dalhousie tried to reorganise the native army, and to 
increases the number of Enghsh regiments in the 


country ; but the Directors did not consent to his 

In 1856, Dalhousie retired from his arduous duties. 

He had greatly increased the British 
hoSs^Work possessions in India. Where there had 

been misrule and tyranny he substituted 
good government and equal laws. By the iron bands 
of railway lines and telegraph wires he linked province 
to province. By a system of cheap postage he facili- 
tated the interchange of thought. By providing roads 
and canals he assisted trade. By introducing a common 
system of state education he created a oneness between 
divergent creeds and races. By allowing Indians into 
every department and grade of the Civil Service he 
satisfied the ambitions of all classes of people. These 
statesmanlike measures rank him with Hastings, Clive, 
Wellesley, and Bentinck, and entitle him to a foremost 
place among the Governors-General of India. 

Lord Canning". 1856-1858. — Owing to Dalhousie's 
measures, when Canning arrived there was in the minds 
of Hindus and Muhammadans, a suspicion that the 
British Government was determined by indirect means 
to subvert the religions of the country, and that national 
customs were in danger of being undermined. In ad- 
dition to this, the application of the 
Causes of the Doctrine of Lapse had greatly alarmed 
of?857^"^^"^ ^^® chiefs and princes, many of whom 
believed themselves to have been un- 
justly deprived of their lawful inheritance. There was 
also a vague expectation in the air because of the pro- 
phecy that the hundredth vear after the battle of Plassey 
would see the end of British rule in India. The sepoys 
knew that the)^ outnumbered the European soldiers in 
the ratio of five to one, and that miles of country in- 
tervened between one English garrison and another. 
The army, too, had been denuded of its British jgfficers, 
many of whom had been given civil and ^ political 

Ch.XII] governors-general after HASTINGS. 209 

appointments. More than this ; the recent Burmese War 
had greatly irritated the sepoys, for they held that they 
had enlisted exclusively for internal warfare, and not 
for service beyond the seas — crossing the seas being 
believed to be forbidden by the Hindu religion. Again, 
many regiments were composed of men who came from 
the same locality, who were related to one another, who 
were of the same caste, and who could therefore easily 
combine for any purpose. The annexation of Oudh 
had sent adrift 50,000 Indian soldiers who had commit- 
ted no fault. All this combined to fill the sepoys with 
discontent. They were thus ripening for mischief when 
the rumour was spread that the British Government 
was conspiring to rob them of their caste by greasing 
the cartridges of the guns with fats that offended 
Muhammadans and Hindus ahke, and that the flour 
supplied to the Hindu sepoys at Cawnpur was mixed 
with bone dust of the sacred cow. 

While these grievances were rankling in the minds 
of the sepoys, their officers and the civil 
authorities suspected nothing. Before Jjny begins 
leaving the country. Lord Dalhousie 
had advised the Home Government to increase the num- 
ber of British soldiers in the Indian army, so that they 
might in an emergency hold the sepoys in check. But 
his advice had not been heeded. It is true that at more 
than one place the sepoys had been somewhat insubor- 
dinate ; but no serious view had been taken of their 
conduct, and they had been leniently treated. And 
yet there were events transpiring which should have 
put the English on their guard. At Meerut a religious 
mendicant publicly preached rebellion, and Dandu Pant, 
the adopted son of the ex-Peshwa, and better known 
in history as Nana Sahib, made a tour of Delhi, Luck- 
now and Kalpi, sowing the seeds of insurrection as he 
went. And so it was that the British dreams of security 
were rudely brought to an end one Sunday evening by 
the sepoys of Meerut shooting down their officers ; 


killing every European man, woman, and child they 
met ; breaking into the jail and releasing the prisoners ; 
and spending the night in plundering the city. Before 
the news of the rising could be sent anywhere, the 
insurgents hurried on to Delhi, and being there joined 
by the sepoys of that city, they murdered the Euro- 
peans of the place. It was very evident that their next 
move would be to take possession of the arms and 
ammunition stored there by the English. But Lieu- 
tenant Willoughby was determined that the powder 
and shot should not fall into their hands. To defend 
the arsenal against them was out of the question, so he 
set fire to the powder, and was blown up together with 
2000 of the rebels. Delhi, however, was in their posses- 
sion, and the mutiny rapidly spread from province to pro- 
vince, and from city to city. Rohilkhand was ablaze,. 
Jalandhar, Bandelkhand, and Jabalpur were in rebellion. 
The Rani of Jhansi behaved with savage ferocity. In 
what is now the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh the 
people themselves joined the sepoys. Lucknow was 
besieged, and Cawnpur was at the mercy of Nana Sahib 
and his general, Tantia Topi. Though the South 
Maratha Country sympathised with the sepoys, its 
soldiery remained inactive. Through the influence of 
Sir Salar Jang, Haidarabad remained peaceful. At 
Peshawar, Barrackpore, and some other places the sepoys 
were disarmed before they could rebel. The Sikhs, 
who might have been expected to join the insurgents,, 
held aloof, and the Punjab remained loyal. 

Delhi, Lucknow, and Cawnpur were the main centres 

of the Mutiny. At the last- mentioned 
Cawnp^u"r!'"Delhl ^^^y some 400 English soldiers en- 
and Lucknow. trenched themselves with their wives 

and children, and for a time bravely 
withstood the fierce assaults of Nana Sahib and Tantia 
Topi. When they felt they could no longer hold out,, 
in despair they accepted the offer which Nana^Sahib 
made them of safe conduct to Allahabad. They were.: 

Ch.XII] governors-general after HASTINGS. 211 

led to the ghat were boats were in readiness for them. 
But as they pushed into midstream the treacherous 
enemy from the banks of the river opened fire on the 
defenceless boats. About 206 men, women, and children 
were made prisoners, and killed with every conceivable 
form of cruelty. Their corpses were thrown promis- 
cuously into a well. Two days after this tragic occur- 
rence, Havelock arrived with a relieving army, and 
Nana Sahib fled. What became of him is not exactly 
known, but it was at the time believed that in the 
forests of Nepal he was devoured by a tiger. At any 
rate he was never heard of again. 

Meanwhile at Delhi, the 30,000 rebel sepoys in 
possession of the city were being besieged by only 7000 
British troops under General Nicholson. At length 
Delhi fell, but not till Nicholson had been killed. The 
Emperor, Bahadur Shah, and his two sons were made 
prisoners. He was transported to Burma, and the ring- 
leaders of the mutinous sepoys at Delhi were shot. 
The fall of Delhi was a turning point in the history of 
the Mutiny. 

As has already been observed, in Oudh the mutineers 
were joined by the people. They were misled into 
rebellion by the Talukdars, who had become disaffected 
owing to the annexation of the province. At Lucknow, 
Sir Henry Lawrence had fortified the Residency, and in 
it about 1700 Europeans were besieged by the rebels 
who were being daily reinforced. Early in the siege 
Lawrence was killed; but the beleaguered British bravely 
held out. After three months a relieving force under 
Havelock, Neill, and Outram arrived. But the invest- 
ment of the Residency continued. Neill fell. In an 
underground chamber the ladies and children dwelt for 
the six dreary and anxious months that the siege con- 
tinued. The Residency yet stands, and its grey walls 
riddled by bullet and cannon ball, bear silent but 
impressive witness to the furyof the mutineers, At last, 
in No\'ember, 1857, Sir Colin Campbell cut his way 



through the enemy, and reheved the all but exhausted 
garrison. The sepoys fell back on Bareilly, but were 
expelled from there, and were pursued from place to 
place till they escaped to Nepal. 

Sir Hugh Rose was meanwhile dealing with the 
Mutiny in Central India. He took Kalpi, and laid siege 
to Jhansi, whose cruel Rani had eagerly combined with 
Tantia Topi. The Maharaja of Gvvahar, who had thrown 
in his lot with the English, was defeated by this Maratha 
general, who forthwith assumed the government of the 
place. Sir Hugh Rose, however, defeated him at Morar, 
and retook Gwaliar. Sir Robert (afterwards Lord) 
Napier came 'upon the rebel army under Tantia Topi 
between Gwaliar and Agra, and all but annihilated his 
forces. Tantia Topi escaped from the battlefield, but 
he was later on betrayed, and hanged for his share in 
the massacre at Cawnpore. It was now April of 1859, 
and the Mutiny was practically stamped out. 

The Residency, Lucknow 


Lord Canning dealt leniently with the mutineers, 
most of whom he believed had been mis- 
guided into rebellion. A general pardon J^jjjf' ^y *^he 
was proclaimed to all who threw them- British Crown. 
selves on the mercy of the English. The 
lands of the disloyal Talukdars were confiscated, and 
the ringleaders were put to death. These mild measures 
displeased many, and earned for the Governor-General 
the nick-name of" Clemency Canning" ; but in truth the 
epithet is a tribute to his wisdom and humanity. His 
mercy did more than anything else to pacify the country, 
and to make it the loyal India of to-day. In 1858, an 
Act was passed by Parliament abolishing the East India 
Company and the Board of Control and transferring the 
government of India to the British Crown in the person 
of Queen Victoria. The Governor-General was created 
Viceroy, and was made responsible to the Secretary of 
State for India, who was put at the head of a Council ap- 
pointed to manage Indian affairs. On the ist November, 
1858, Queen Victoria's Proclamation was read with due 
ceremonial splendour at every civil and military station. 
It guaranteed to the people fair and equitable treatment ; 
it assured the nobility that all treaties and engagements 
made with them in the past would be respected ; the 
Doctrine of Lapse was declared to be abandoned, and 
adoption in the event of failure of natural heirs was 
admitted to confer on the adopted the right of succession 
to the guddee. The Public Services were without 
reserve thrown open to any natives of India who, by 
their education, ability and integrity, might be capable 
of performing duties that had hitherto largely been 
discharged by Europeans. 



India under the Crown: 

The Fifth, or British, Empire of India. 

The Viceroys of India. 

i8s8—igoi A.D. 

LORD Canning", 1858-1862.— The Queen's Procla- 
mation made India a dependency of England, and 

Canning was created Viceroy. As soon 
as Vieeroy^*'^^ ^^ peace was restored, he travelled 

over Northern India, and reassured the 
princes and people whose cities he visited. At Agra he 
held an assembly, or durbar, of Indian chiefs who had 
been loyal during the Mutiny, and rewarded them with 
titles and decorations. His next anxiety was to recoup 
the vast sums which the rebellion had cost. An income 
tax was imposed, customs duties were revised, and pro- 
fessions were required to pay a license. Then, in 1859, 
a Rent Act was passed in the interests of ryots, and in 
the following year the Indian Penal Code, which Lord 
Macaulay had drawn up, was used in all Criminal 
Courts. The Sadar Courts were abolished, and the 
High Court of Calcutta was established. 

Lord Elg-in, I. 1862-1863.— Lord Elgin, who had 
been Governor of Canada, in America, was appointed 
to succeed Canning. During his short rule of eighteen 
months he had to put down a rising of the Wahabis, 
a fanatical sect of Muhammadans. While touring in 
North-West of India, he became seriously ill, and 
died at Dharamsala. There he was buried. Until the 
next Viceroy could come out, Sir William Denisun, the 


Governor of Madras, acted at the head of the Indian 
Government. It looked as though fresh trouble was 
at hand, for the Raja of Bhutan raided the Duars, and 
treated with scorn the ambassador who was sent to 
remonstrate with him. 

Lord Lawrence, 1864-1869.— Sir John Lawrence, 
who had so ably ruled in the Punjab during the Mutiny, 
was selected to be the next Viceroy, and was created 
Lord Lawrence. He was very averse to wars, and 
though he might have found reason for entering upon 
hostilities with Afghanistan, he desisted. It was, how- 
ever, otherwise in the case of Bhutan, The conduct of 
the Raja of that land could not be tolerated, and an 
expedition was sent against him. After a brief but 
brave resistance he was overthrown, and the Bhutan 
Duars were annexed, 1864. Two years later a terrible 
famine occurred in Orissa, and in spite of all that was 
done to supply its people with grain, thousands died of 

Lord Mayo. "The Conciliator of Princes," 1869- 
1872. — As already hinted, Sher Ali the new Amir of 
Afghanistan, had had a misunderstanding with Lord 
Lawrence, and Mayo thought of restoring friendly feel- 
ings by inviting him to a meeting at Ambala. Sher Ali 
came, and was treated with special honour ; but he went 
back dissatisfied. The Viceroy then turned his attention 
to internal reforms and improvements. For some years 
past the income of the Government had fallen short, 
chiefly because the Local Governments made no attempts 
to save expenditure that could well be avoided. The 
reason of their extravagance was that any savings they 
might effect lapsed to the Government 
of India. To remedy this Mayo devised l^^J^^Tsy^^^ 
what is known as the Provincial Con- 
tract S,ystem, according to which a certain portion of 
the rev\2nues and of other incomes is allotted to the 


Provincial Governments for five years at a time. From 
this allotment they have to meet their expenses, and if 
there be any balance left, they may use it for the 
benefit of the province concerned. This system with 
unimportant modifications continues to this day, and 
by it the money affairs of the Government have caused 
httle, if any, anxiety. 

Mayo next remodelled the Supreme Council. He 
divided the affairs of the Government into 
the^Sup?SSe s^^^" Departments— Foreign ; Pubhc 
Council. Works ; Home ; Revenue ; Agriculture, 

Commerce ; Financial ; Mihtary ; and 
Legislative. The Head of each Department was \given 
a seat on the Supreme Council of which the Viceroy 
himself was President. Every member was responsible 
for his own Department, but he had the benefit of the 
advice of the other members assembled in Council. By 
this means the various parts of the machinery of the 
Government were made interdependent, and assisted to 
work together in harmony. 

In the Queen's Proclamation of 1858 it was declar- 
ed that the government of the several 
tife^^Feudatopy Ponces and chiefs who then governed 
States. their own territories should be perpetu- 

ated, and that the dignity of their houses 
should be maintained. Lord Mayo recognised that this 
meant that an area of about 600,000 square miles, with 
a population of nearly 50 millions, governed by Feuda- 
tory Chiefs was part and parcel of the British Indian 
Empire, and that the Queen had made herself responsible 
for its welfare. He therefore laid down the following 
maxims for future deahngs with Feudatory Chiefs : — (i) 
The misrule of an Indian Chief was never to be made 
the excuse for annexation. (2) Where there was bad 
government the Chief might be replaced by his heir, 
whose government — if he were a minor — should be 
placed under a Native or an European Regeijiit. (3) 
The vounger Native Chiefs should be educated under 

Ch. XIIL] the viceroys of india. 217 

the direction of British officers, and be taught their res- 
ponsibihties to their subjects and to the British Govern- 
ment. In working out this poHcy Mayo took in hand 
the 187 Chiefs of Kathiawar, estabhshed a cohege for 
them, and gradually introduced among them a better 
system of Government. So also the state of Aliwar 
was placed under a Native Council of Management. 
It did not take long for the Feudatory Princes to ap- 
preciate the work that Lord Mayo was doing for them, 
and the genuine grief that filled them when they heard 
of his assassination by a felon on the Andaman Islands, 
was only one proof out of many that in his death they 
felt they had lost a true friend. 

To avoid friction between England and Russia on 
account of Afghanistan, Lord Mayo by 
skilfully conducted negotiations had the Afghanfstan ^^ 
Amir's boundaries fixed. defined. 

The Viceroy now devoted himself to the extension 
of railways, and to the improvement 

of the means whereby, m times of f^i^SXekt^on.^^'' 
deficient ramfall, water might be sup- 
plied to the districts where there was drought. To 
afford education to the masses was his wish, and he so 
improved the Department of Public Instruction that he 
studded Bengal with primary schools in which all classes 
of society were taught Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. 
Knowing how the people of this country yield an affec- 
tionate loyalty to the person of their ruler, he arranged 
for a visit to India by his Royal High- 
ness the Duke of Edinburgh, the second Visit of the 

son of Queen Victoria. The tour of the Edinbupg-h 
Duke touched the hearts of the Queen's 
Indian subjects, and put a seal to the peace that pre- 
vailed in our land. 

Lord Mayo was a man who wanted to see things 
for himself. Early in 1872 he started on 
a tour, to Burma, the Andaman Islands, Assas^nated 
and OriSsa. But he did not get further 



than the Andamans ; for as he was leaving the shores of 
Viper and Ross Islands, one of the convicts — whose 
condition in exile he had gon& to ameliorate — stabbed 
him ; and all India went into mourning for one of her 
most sympathetic and noble-hearted Viceroys. 

Lord NoPthbPOok, 1 872-1876.— The year after North- 
brook's arrival he was called upon to combat a severe 
famine that prevailed in Northern Bengal and Bihar. 
Relief works were opened, grain was imported from 
Burma, and every effort was made to save life. In 1875 
our Emperor, Edward VII., then Prince of Wales, paid 
India a visit. People of all classes combined to give 
him a royal welcome. Before retiring in the following 
year Lord Northbrook set Indian finances on a firm basis. 

Lord Lytton. 1876-1880. — In 1877 Queen Victoria 
assumed the title of Empress of India,"^and at a great 
durbar held at Delhi, Lord Ly tton pubhshed to all Indians 
that they were ruled over by their own sovereign. At 
the same time the Proclamation of 1858 was confirmed, 
and the bond between England and India was thereby 
more closely drawn. 

Southern and Northern India, excepting Bengal and 

Assam, was at this time visited by a 

Famine of 1877. famine, and though Government spent 

a crore and ten lakhs of rupees in 
affording relief, hunger and disease claimed a large 
number of victims. 

Ever since the time of Lord Lawrence the relations 
between Sher Ali, Amir of Afghanistan, 

Af|han°War. ^^^ "^^^ English had been strained. For 
military purposes Ouetta had lately been 
occupied as an outpost. To this the Amir objected, 
and regarded it as a menace to his kingdom. He accord- 
ingly entered into negotiations with Russia, and received 
the Czar's ambassador with marked honour at.,Kabul 
As a matter of political necessity Lord Lytton^sent an 


English envoy to Sher Ali, but the Amir refused to 
receive the British ambassador. This could not be 
tolerated, and war was declared. An English army 
marched into Afghanistan, and before the close of 1878 
Jallalabad and Kandahar were in the possession of 
the English, and Sher Ali fled to Balk. Here he 
died ; and in the following year his son, Yakub Khan, 
sued for peace, and the Treaty of Gandamak was signed. 
He agreed to receive a British Resident at Kabul, and 
was in turn acknowledged as Amir. 

But the presence of a British Resident at the capital 
of their country was distasteful to the Afghans, and 
suddenly the soldiers of the Amir attacked Sir Louis 
Cavagnari, who was Resident, and his 
attendants, and killed him and them. The Thipd 
This act of treachery necessitated a re- jg'^-^I ^^' 
newal of war, and Sir Frederick (now 
Lord) Roberts marched on Kabul, and took it. At the 
same time Sir Donald Stewart won a decisive battle at 
Ahmad Khel, and Yakub Khan was brought down to 
Calcutta as a prisoner. This incensed the Afghans, and 
the whole country rose up in arms. At this time a 
change occurred in the Ministry in England, and Lord 
Lytton resigned the Viceroyalty. Lord Ripon took 
up the office thus vacated, and continued the war which 
he had inherited from his predecessor in office. 

Lord Ripon, " The Conciliator of the People, ' 
1880-1884 — Shortly after Lord Ripon's „, . , 
arrival he received the unwelcome wapeontinuS! 
news that the English army had been 
defeated at Mai wand by Ayub Khan, a brother of the 
captive Amir. General Roberts, however, saved the 
position by marching from Kabul to Kandahar, and by com- 
pletely routing Ayub's army. Abdur Rahman, a nephew 
of Sher Ali, was then placed on the Afghan throne, and 
the wai' having ended, the English troops were withdrawn. 

Lord Ripon felt that the time had come when 


Indian municipalities might be given a 
The Local Self- larger share in the guidance of local 
Government Aet^^^.^^ In 1882 he, therefore, passed 

the Local Self-Government Act. By 
this means he developed the municipal constitution 
which had gradually been growing up since India passed 
to the Crown. He conferred larger powers of local 
administration to rural and urban Boards, and the elective 
principle received a wider application. Since then pub- 
he opinion has gained more and more weight, and the 
extended hberty which was at this time given to the' 
Indian press has allowed of the free discussion of mat- 
ters connected with the public welfare. As Representa- 
tive Government and Education go hand in hand, Lord 
Ripon improved the quality of the education imparted in 
Indian schools. In all matters he showed himself to be 
in deep sympathy with the ambitions and aspirations of 
the Queen's Indian subjects, and when he retired in 1884 
his departure was much regretted. 

Lord Dufferin, 1884- 1888. -Of late years Russia 
had been so extending her territory 
The Boundary ^^i^^ she had now come to the confines 
Commission. ^^ Afghanistan Indeed there was a 
likelihood of her taking Herat itself Such a measure 
would of necessity produce complications which had 
better be avoided. Lord Dufferin with masterly dip- 
lomacy secured the appointment of a Commission of 
English and Russian officers who defined the boundaries 
of Afghanistan. At the same time several border tribes 
came under the friendly control of the British. The 
hands of the Indian Government were at this time 
strengthened by the offer of troops by the Feudatory 
and other chiefs in event of a war with Russia. To 
mark its appreciation of the loyalty of the native states, 
the Government sanctioned the maintenance of an Im- 
perial Service Contingent in the more important-.Feuda- 
tory States. 

Ch.XIII.] the viceroys of india. 221 

For some years past affairs in Upper Burma had 
been going from bad to worse. King 
The Third Buf- Thebaw recked little of treaties and 
mese War 1885. jggg Qf „qq^ government. He permitted 
British traders to be molested, and bands 
of robbers to infest the land. Not content with what 
they could plunder in Burma itself, these made mcur- 
sions even into British territory. The Viceroy appealed 
to Thebaw to set matters right, but he insolently threat- 
ened to invade British India himself. General Prender- 
gast was sent with an army against him. Mandalay, 
the capital of Upper Burma, was taken without a blow : 
Thebaw was deposed ; his kingdom annexed, 1886 ; and 
the entire country of Burma was constituted a Chief 
Commissionership. Since 1897 it has been ruled by 
a Lieutenant-Governor, and is now in a prosperous 

Lord Lansdowne, 1888-1894.— The new Viceroy 
completed the defence of the Afghan frontier, and as- 
sisted the Feudatory Chiefs in organising the Imperial 
Service Corps to defend that frontier. In Manipur there 
was an unimportant rebellion which was easily sup- 
pressed. The Imperial and Provincial Legislative 
Councils were enlarged, and the elective system for 
the return of certain members to those councils was 

Lord Elg-in II., 1894-1899.— A disturbance in 
Chitral, on the Afghan side of the north-west frontier, 
led to an expedition, which resulted in the English 
occupying that distant outpost. The bubonic plague 
now broke out in India, and in spite of all that science 
and sanitation can do to check its spread from cities 
to rural tracts, it still prevails. In 1897 a severe famine 
occurred in the Central Provinces, Bihar, and the United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Public generosity and 
relief 'Vorks saved many lives that must otherwise 


have been lost. But the misfortunes of Lord Elgin's 
incumbency were not yet ended. An earthquake 
of considerable violence visited North-Eastern India 
and caused great loss of property, and damaged 
many public works and railways. In the same year 
the fierce tribesmen of Tirah, towards Afghanistan, 
raided British territory, and the Tirah campaign was 
undertaken to restore order. In this it succeeded. 

Lord Curzon, 1899-1905.— The first pubHc duty 
that Lord Curzon was called upon to perform was to 
organise relief for one of the severest famines that have 
ever visited India. The unity of the British Empire all 
the world over was illustrated in a remarkable manner, 
by the large sums of money that were sent from every 
part of that empire for the supply of food to the millions 
who were starving in an area of 400,000 square miles. 
The famine was severest in the Central Provinces, the 
Berars, Northern Deccan, Gujarat, Rajputana and 
Mysore. At one time 3^ million people were on relief, 
and six million pounds was expended in the charitable 
work of feeding the hungry. In 1 901, Queen Victoria 
died, and in January, 1903, Edward VII was formally pro- 
claimed Emperor of India at a splendid durbar at Delhi. 
With the exception of the expedition to Tibet, the 
whole of Lord Curzon's administration was taken up 
with internal measures. Here-adjusted the distribution 
of British India, by creating the North-West Frontier 
Province, and by adding parts of the Bengal Presidency 
to Assam to form the new Province of Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. Educational affairs occupied much o his 
attention. He remodelled the lines upon which primary 
and secondary schools had been conducted, revived in- 
struction in the vernaculars, and revised the constitution 
and methods of the Indian Universities. He improved 
the prospects of the Police Service, and minimised the 
danger of corruption among its servants and the oppres- 
sion by them of the pubhc. He established a f /epart- 


ment of Commercial Intelligence. He extended railways, 
and in every direction gave an impetus to the fuller 
development of the natural resources of the country. 
He visited Persia, and made a new treaty with the Amir 
of Afghanistan. To counteract the influence which 
Russia had begun secretly to exert in Tibet, a Commer- 
cial Expedition was made into that land. By these 
dealings with our neighbours on the frontier he secured 
the protection of India against foreign designs. As a 
result of continued financial prosperity he reduced the 
Salt and Income Taxes. Important changes were made 
in army affairs, and these led to his resignation, in 1905. 
He was succeeded by Lord Minto II., who is now the 
head of the Indian Government. 


fndia, Past and Present. 

Material, Intellectual and Moral Progress. 

IN addressing the vast concourse of Indian nobles and 
potentates assembled at the Dehli Durbar, speaking 
of the people of India, Lord Curzon said : — " To the 
majority of these millions the King's Government has 
given freedom from invasion and anarchy ; to others it 
has guaranteed their rights and privileges ; to others it 
opens ever-widening avenues of honourable employ- 
ment ; to the masses it dispenses mercy in the hour of 
suffering; and to all it endeavours to give equal justice, 
immunity from oppression, and the blessings of en- 
lightenment and peace. To have won such a dominion 
is a great achievement ; to hold it by fair and righteous 
dealings is greater ; to weld it by wise statesmanship 
into a single and compact whole will be, and is, the 

It is difficult for us in these days of security to realise 
what an invasion from Persia, Afghani- 
stan, or Central Asia meant. It signified invasion, 
not merely a host of 20,000 to 100,000 
foreign soldiers "on the march, paying for nothing, and 
eating every town, and cottage, and farmyard, burning 
and slaughtering on the smallest provocation and often 
in mere sport. It usually also meant a grand final sack 
and massacre at the capital of the invaded country. " 
For instance, when Nadir Shah invested Delhi, in a 
single forenoon 8000 men, women, and children were 
sabred, and the city was pillaged, and set on fire in 
several places. Within a few years of the departure 
of Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah made no less th^p five 
inroads into India, and his troops for a series of ' weeks 


made Delhi the scene of every atrocity. His Afghan 
cavalry meanwhile scoured the country, slaying, burn- 
ing and mutilating, in the smallest village as in the 
largest town. His horsemen suddenly swooped down 
upon the sacred city of Muttra while it was thronged 
with thousands of peaceful pilgrims who had swarmed 
to it for a holy festival. Before the devotees could es- 
cape, they were burnt within their houses, or massacred 
in the streets, or carried away into captivity. Such was 
the condition of Upper India not 150 years ago. Nor 
did other parts of the country fare any better. Fierce 
aboriginal tribes, like the Koch and Ahoms, from time 
to time devastated Assam. Warlike neighbours like the 
Burmese overran Eastern Bengal and laid it waste. 
Southern Bengal, as also the Coromandal and Malabar 
Coasts, fell an easy prey to pirates, who sailed up the 
large rivers, burned peaceful villages, and put to the 
sword inoffensive peasants. All this is now changed. 
The mountain passes of the Himalayas are no longer 
an open door to enemies in the north ; the eastern tribes, 
as well as the Burmese, are subject to British rule ; and 
pirac}' is a thing of the past. 

Great as was the suffering caused by the unprovoked 

incursions of foreigners, greater was the 
ArfaiSiv ^^°™ misery produced by internal wars. It 

is said that Muhammad Shah, Sultan of 
Gulburga once had a quarrel with the Raja of Vijaya- 
nagar, and that he did not sheath his sword till 50,000 
of his enemy's subjects had been killed. The Marathas 
gave the country no rest. "Every region which was 
not subject to their rule was wasted by their incursions. 
Wherever their kettledrums were heard, the peasant 
threw his bag of rice on his shoulder, hid his small 
savings in his girdle, and fled with his wife and children 
to the mountains or the jungles, to the milder neigh- 
bourhood of the hyena and the tiger." Nor were the 
Pindaris less of a scourge to the land. Chitu led an 
undiscij)lined army of 25,000 ruffians into the Nizam's 


territories, and there they burned, destroyed and slaugh- 
tered as far south as the Krishna. They then entered 
the Northern Circars, and not a town or village escaped 
the horrors of their cruel greed. Then, too, the death 
of a Mughal Emperor was the signal for a civil war in 
which neither side showed any mercy. Of the twenty 
princes who succeeded Aurangzeb, fourteen met violent 
deaths ; four were blinded, and two died in prison. The 
tale of miser}' was completed by the depredations of 
the Pathans, the thags, and the dacoits. How many 
deaths, and how much misery they were responsible for 
will never be known. Very different is it now. The 
Marathas, Pindaris, Pathans, and other avowed enemies 
of peace no longer fill the land with bloodshed. War 
between two Indian princes can no longer be resorted to, 
and struggles for vacant thrones do not occur. The 
domination of the English has brought to an end civil 
discord and anarchy. 

It is the natural right and privilege of every man 
to call his life and properly his own. 
But this was precisely what no one could Their Rights and. 
do a little over a century ago. In those anteed^t? aU ^^" 
days one's life might be taken at any 
moment, and of all investments landed property was 
the least secure. The usual price of a field was the 
crop standing on it. And even at that price it was often 
dear, for before it could be reaped, down would come 
a swarm of Marathas or Pindaris, sla}' the owner, and 
carry off his ripened corn. People were glad to escape 
with their hves, and leave their homes and belongings 
to the enemy. Owing to the frequency of invasions, 
the borderland between Afghanistan and India was a 
silent waste. Along the foot of the Himalayas a belt 
of land, measuring 30,000 square miles was delivered 
over to wild beasts. Vast tracts of country in Assam 
and Bengal had no inhabitants. By the sea coast and 
in the deltas of the larger rivers many thousand ^square 
miles were depopulated by the ravages of 'pirates. 


Owing to the general insecurity no one had the heart 
to grow more than what would suffice for actual needs. 
No industries flourished, and trade there was none. 
People feared to come together and form towns or large 
villages. They preferred to live in small and scattered 
groups so that they might not attract the attention of 
a greedy foe. It is very ditferent now. The once barren 
wildernesses of the Himalayan borderland smile with 
fields of grain, and tea-plantations dot the slopes of the 
mountams themselves. Waste lands and swamps are 
being everywhere reclaimed, and land is now the safest 
of all investments. It is difficult to buy a field for 
even twenty crops. Though parts of the country are 
overcrowded, people do not at all seem willing to try 
their fortunes in uncultivated tracts. They prefer to 
live in their native towns or villages, being as averse to 
leaving their homesteads as they were formerly afraid 
to inhabit them. Hence populous towns and villages 
have sprung up in abundance, and the great problem 
of the day is to raise from the fields enough for the 
wants of so many milhons. 

Their rights and privileges have been guaranteed 
not to the masses only, but also to the princes and 
native rulers in the land. The unsettled condition of 
the country in former days involved the smaller princes 
and rulers in ruin, for their wealth, supposed or real, 
made them the prey successively of Mughal, Maratha 
and Pindari. Repeatedly it was their fate to ransom 
their lives by paying all that they possessed. Their 
estates were often confiscated for no just reason, or they 
were thrown into prison and their lands given to another. 
But since Queen Victoria, in 1858, abandoned the Doc- 
trine of Lapse, and Lord Mayo made it law that on no 
account was an Indian chief to have his territories 
annexed, the native rulers of the country have enjoyed 
security to a degree formerly unknown by them. They 
show their gratitude by their loyalty and devotion to 
the Ci^wn. Some of them maintain Imperial Service 


Troops with which to help the British Government in 
time of necessity, and Lord Curzon created a career for 
princes by estabhshing a Cadet Corps for the sons of 
Indian chieftains. 

(a) Agriculture, Trades and Industries. — Security of 
hfe and property is the foundation upon 
which the British have built their J? ^pg^iel!^"^^ 
Government of India. The remarkable 
development of agriculture during the last hundred years 
is only a result of continued peace and security. Rulers 
and people alike have a permanent interest in their 
possessions ; population has increased ; and commerce 
and trade have become possible. Waste lands have been 
brought under the plough, and the poorest man endea- 
vours to obtain the best return from his fields, for he 
knows that what he does not require for his own use he 
can readily sell in the market. In large towns and 
populous cities mills and factories give the labouring 
classes an industrial career. British capital has opened 
out tea and coffee plantations, paper, cotton and jute 
mills, oil and coal mmes, indigo and opium factories, not 
to mention potteries, rope works, quarries and other lines 
of business which provide work for millions. In 1907, 
sugar was raised on 2,348,800 acres of land, and the yield 
amounted to 2,223,400 tons. In the same year there 
were 533,300 acres under tea, which produced 240,849,900 
Hbs of tea, and gave employment to over 500,000 coolies. 
Cotton plantations in the same year covered 22,344,000 
acres, and produced 4,908,000 bales, of 5 maunds each, 
of which Rs. 21,966,000 worth was exported during the 
year, the balance beingmanufactured into cloth in 2 1 7 local 
cotton mills, where 211,100 persons found daily employ- 
ment. Jute was in the same year grown on 3,883,200 
acres, and yielded 9,600,000 bales, and provided 167,000 
persons with work. In 1907, there were 307 coal mines 
in which on the average 128,666 labourers were daily 
employed, and which yielded 9,783,200 tons of coal. 


It is not necessary to give details of every trade and 
industry, but some idea may be formed of the enormous 
proportions to which commerce has grown when in 
1907 Calcutta alone had a trade valued at i2oi crores. 
In 1 906- 1 907, the imports of all India were valued at 
Rs. 1,717,359,670, and its exports at Rs. 3,519,824,950. 
Thus in that year the commerce of India with other 
lands yielded her a profit of Rs. 1,802,465,280. 

(b) The Post and Telegraph Departments.— The 

expansion of trade and commerce has necessitated rapid 
means of communication, and cheap modes of carrying 
goods. In 1837, the Postal Department was established. 
Before that date there was no general system of postal 
service in India. Government had its own arrangements 
for the conveyance of state letters and parcels, and 
private persons were, as a matter of favour, allowed to 
use the Government Service. In the absence of railways 
and steamers, letters were carried b)^ country-boats, 
dak-garies, horses, camels, and runners. There were no 
postage stamps, and the charge from Calcutta to Bombay 
was one rupee per tola Now a letter can be sent to 
England for one anna, and a post card to Bombay costs 
only one pice. The total length of mail lines is now 
about 153,600 miles, and more than 78,000,000 letters, 
newspapers, and parcels are carried by the post in a 
year. The operations of the Post Office include the 
making or the realising of payments ; the banking of 
savings ; the distribution of quinine : and the insurance 
of letters and parcels. Fifty years ago there was some 
uncertainty as to whether, at the end of several weeks, 
a letter would reach its destination ; now we post our 
letters confident that in a day or two they will be cor- 
rectly delivered. In the year 1907, the sum of Rs. 
147,500,000 was held in favour of depositors in the 
Post Ofifice Savings Bank. 

Intimately associated with the Postal Service is the 
Telegraph Department. We owe its introduction to 


Dr. O'Shaughnessy, a Professor of the Medical College 
in Calcutta. He first experimented in telegraphy at 
the Botanical Gardens on the opposite side of the Hugh, 
and in 185 1 he worked an experimental line of 82 miles 
with such success that Lord Dalhousie connected Calcutta, 
Agra, Bombay,Peshawar and Madras with telegraph wires. 
In 1855, private messages began to be received for trans- 
mission. Now some 67,000 miles of telegraph wires inter- 
sect the land, and a message can be flashed from Cape 
Comorin to Peshawar in a few minutes for a fee of six 
annas only. In 1907, over 14 million messages travelled 
by wire. The benefits of the telegraph system are in- 
estimable, and the service it rendered during the Mutiny 
of 1857 has established its political importance. 

(c) TheExpansionof Commerce.— The Postal De- 
partment could not do its work without railw^ays, nor 
could commerce be carried on in its present proportions 
wnthout trains. In former times the journey from Cal- 
cutta to Bhagalpur occupied two months by boat ; now 
the distance is covered in less than fifteen hours by 
train. Travelling has become not only rapid but easy. 
The wayfarer of a hundred years ago had to risk en- 
counters with wild beasts and bands of desperate rob- 
bers. The difficulties of the way were increased b)^ 
bad roads, or famine-stricken districts, or swollen rivers. 
Railways have altered these conditions, and have made 
journeying safe and cheap. Merchandise of all kinds 
is now carried great distances at very moderate rates. 
The first railway, 20 miles in length, w^as opened in 1853 
between Bombay and Thana. The next year the East 
Indian Railway conveyed passengers from Howrah to 
Pandua, a distance of ^8 miles. In 1856 the Madras 
Railway ran to Arcot, 65 miles. At J3resent India is 
covered w'ith a network of railways measuring 30,000 
miles, and in 1907 no less than 300 million passengers 
travelled in trains, and 69 milhon tons of goods/. w^ere 
carried. Over three million people are employed in 


working railways, and so, many thousands, who might 
otherwise be in want, are enabled to provide themselves 
with food. 

(d) Inland Roads and Canals, - Railways have open- 
ed up the country to trade. In former times the cost of 
carrying grain, etc., to markets was so great, that traffic 
in local produce was impossible. Now all that a trader 
has to do is to buy his grain in the villages and convey 
it to the nearest railway station. This has encouraged 
husbandmen to grow in their fields more than they 
require, so that they may sell the surplus, and with the 
money thus obtained procure for themselves some of 
the necessaries and comforts of life. Railways have, 
therefore, called into existence innumerable roads and 
their feeders. Before the British Government was estab- 
lished, there was not a single good road in the country. 
But from the time that Bentinck began the Grand Trunk 
Road from Calcutta to Delhi, Local Governments, 
District Boards and Municipalities have been so busy in 
making roads that it is comparatively easy to carry the 
produce of distant fields to the railway. Where roads 
do not exist, canals supply a water-way upon which 
boats and steamers carry country produce to trading 

(e) Emig"ration. — Mention has already been made of 
the great increase there is in population, and it has been 
observed that one of the most difficult problems ot the 
day is to feed the millions of India. It is calculated 
that there is an increase of 20,000,000 souls in every 
ten years. The growing population may be provided 
for by waste lands and sw^amps being converted into 
fields ; bv agricutrural methods being improved so that 
the same area of fields may produce grain more abun- 
dantly ; and by the excess of population emigrating to 
less thickly inhabited parts of the country. The re- 
clamation of land proceeds slowly. The people are too 


conservative to improve their modes of cultivation ; 
and emigration affords only a partial solution of the diffi- 
culty. Some progress, however, has been made in all 
these directions. The waste lands along the base of the 
Himalayas have been reclaimed for the plough : but still 
107,525,236 acres in British India await cultivation. 
In all schools the elements of agricultural knowledge 
are being taught, particularly in rural tracts, and it is 
hoped that more information on the subject may lead 
to improved husbandry. Emigration proceeds upon a 
small scale to Assam, and to such places as Mauritius, 
Demerara, and Trinidad. In 1900, there were 69,841 
emigrants to Assam, and about 100,000 emigrants to the 
colonies, and elsewhere. But most emigrants return to 
their native homes after a term of years, and emigration 
therefore does not in any great degree afford relief to 
congested areas. 

(/) Education. — Peace is conducive to the spread of 
learning. Under no Indian dynasty was the education 
of subjects regarded as a duty of the state. Whatever 
learning there was, it was confined to the Brahmins, 
who cultivated Sanskrit, and to the Mullahs, who made 
a study of Arabic. Education for the masses neverexisted. 
In 1 78 1, Warren Hastings established the Calcutta Ma- 
drasah, and in 1813, when the charter of the East India 
Company was renewed, a clause was inserted requiring 
not less than a lakh of rupees to be spent every year in 
the diffusion of knowledge. When Bentinck ruled, 
education in English was for the first time generally 
imparted, and in 1857 the Universities of Calcutta, 
Madras and Bombay were founded. In later years uni- 
versities have been added at Allahabad and Lahore. 
Lord Mayo and Lord Ripon extended education to the 
masses, and in 1902, we had in British India 3,184,000 
pupils in 92,000 primary schools; 259,412 pupils in 5,032 
secondary schools ; and 17,148 students (including 177 
girls) in 180 colleges. The expense to Governmt^nt for 


education amounted, in 1902, to about no lakhs of rupees, 
which amount was required to supplement the fees of 
pupils and the subscriptions of persons interested in the 
spread of education. The Universities are meanwhile 
preparing men for a share in the service of Government 
and for practising the learned professions. 

C^) Religfious Toleration — Every one is entitled to 
his own religious views and convictions. In former days 
this was not admitted by the rulers of the land, and 
there existed odious taxes such as the jiziya and taxes on 
pilgrims. Hindu persecuted Muhammadan, and Mu- 
hammadan persecuted Hindu. But now the British 
Government allows every man to follow his own religion 
without let or hindrance. Missionaries preach Christ- 
ianity, just as Muhammadans, or Buddhists, or Brahmos 
endeavour to spread their respective faiths. In the 
eyes of British law all religions are equal, and no man's 
religion or caste is considered a disqualification for service 
under Government. 

{h) Police. — The Police is maintained for the preser- 
vation of peace and for the suppression of crime. The 
policemen of the Mughal Empire were an undisciplined, 
half-starved soldiery, who lived upon what they could 
extort from the people. Now the policeman receives a 
monthly salary, and is kept under strict discipline. His 
duties are to check and trace crime, to aid the meting 
out of justice, and to report breaches of law. For 
protection against robbery and murder each person pays 
the Government a monthly Police Tax of less than i pice. 
We now have court houses, and jails, and thanas. In 
the time of the Mughais "the prisons themselves were 
ruinous hovels, whose inmates had to be kept in stocks 
and fetters, or were held down under flat bamboos, not 
on account of their crimes, but because, from the in- 
security of the jails, the jailer had no other means of 
preveiUing their escape." Compare with this the treat- 


ment of prisoners in our modern jails. Thelt and crimes 
against the person have sensibly diminished, and although 
the Police is capable of improvement, through its organi- 
zation there is now less crime in India than in many- 
other lands. 

(i) The Dispensing- of Justice with an even hand.— 

The Mughals had no system for their law courts. Judges 
were not salaried, nor were they watched and corrected 
by superior courts. They were often merely sellers of 
decisions, and earned their living by accepting payment 
alike from plaintiff and defendant. They were guided 
by no impartial codes of criminal or civil laws, nor was 
any adequate opportunity of defence given to the accused. 
We now have our lower and our higher courts, so that 
an appeal from a subordinate magistrate lies to his superior. 
The law makes no distinction between rich and poor. 
There is the same law for all. The powers of magis- 
trates are restricted according to their rank, and every 
one charged with crime is allowed to defend himself by 
employing advocates learned in the law. Judges and 
magistrates are paid suitable and sufficient salaries, and 
they are upright and just. 

(/) Social, Relig-ious and Political Prog-ress.— Social 
life in India is inseparable form religious rites and obser- 
vances. While the manners and customs of a nation 
may undergo changes, its religious teaching permits of 
little, if any, modification. Under such circumstances 
religion inevitably acts as a check upon the introduction 
of innovations in national customs and practices. In 
India, if this were not the case, it is certain that the so- 
cial advancement of its people would have kept pace 
with the material development of the country. And 
yet unmistakably the feeling is yearly gaining ground 
that the time has come for the old order of things to 
give way to the requirements of new surroundings. The 
study of Western literature has familiarized the .people 


with new modes of thought and with new standards of 
Hfe ; commerce with other countries has brought into 
their homes commodities formerly unknown ; and con- 
tact with Europeans has enlarged their outlook. The 
rigid exclusiveness of a century ago has disappeared, and 
in schools pupils of all castes and creeds sit side by side 
and receive the same instruction. Passengers of all grades 
of society crowd together into the trains. Members of 
formerly despised classes fill offices of trust and honour 
in the State. Under the stress of circumstances the old 
barriers that separated the people into unsympathetic 
groups are being gradually removed. The lower orders 
have risen in the social scale, and though caste distinctions 
continue, much toleration is evinced. Then, too, at 
the conclusion of its sessions the National Congress is 
accustomed to resolve itself into a Social Conference 
for the discussion of such subjects as the remarriage of 
child widows, the education of women, and the propriety 
of crossing the seas. Briefly, the general tendency is in 
favour of allowing persons greater freedom in the details 
of every day life. 

In Religion there has been of necessity but little to 
call for remark. The British Government of India is 
neutral in religious matters, and allows its subjects the 
fullest freedom in the exercise of their Faiths. Where, 
however, the claims of humanity have demanded it, the 
Government has intervened, and tJia^i, sati, infanticide, 
human sacrifices, and hook-swinging have been sup- 
pressed. There is now a spirit of inquiry abroad, and 
people diligently study their Sacred Books in perference 
to accepting as final the dogmatic teaching of others. 
Newspapers and journals discuss questions of religion, 
and missionary attempts are being made to prevent 
people from fallingaway from theirancientcreeds. A reli- 
gious movement somewhat analogous to the Protestant 
Reformation of the sixteenth century has taken place, and 
the Sadharan Brahmo Somaj and the Adi BrahmoSomaj 
have is^ed as theistic rehabilitations of Hinduism. 


It is, however, in the sphere of Politics that the 
greatest progress has been made. Apart from the share 
that State servants of all grades have in the administra- 
tion of the land, non-officials also participate in the 
conduct of public affairs. By the creation of Municipal 
Towns and of District Boards, self-government has in 
some measure been introduced. A certain number of 
seats on the Provincial Legislative Councils is reserved 
for non-official Indians who are returned by the votes 
of constituents. Moreover, as occasion arises, the Viceroy 
appoints Indians as additional Members of his Council. 
All Bills are published before they are finally made law, 
and newspapers and public bodies have an opportunity 
of criticising the measures which Government has in 
contemplation. The Indian National Congress assem- 
bles annually to ventilate the aspirations and the desires 
of the people, and political work is diligently carried on 
throughout the year by influential bodies, such, for 
example, as the British Indian Association and the 
Muhammadan Literary Society of Calcutta. 

The Mughals were as much foreign rulers of India 
as are the British. With the solitary ex- 
Avenues of ceptionofAkbar, no Mughal emperor ad- 

§^"r.^!!5^^i^^ milted the Hindus or the Muhammadans 
Employment, ^ ^, ■ , ^ ^ ■ , 

or the country mto the higher services 

of the State. The English, however, have been more wise 
and liberal. They have from the earliest time of their 
occupation of this land employed native labour. At 
first Indians were given only subordinate posts, but now 
there is nothing to exclude them from the best appoint- 

However, clerkships and Government appointments 
happily are not the ambition of all. Many prefer to enter 
the learned professions, and be physicians, surgeons, law- 
yers, civil engineers, electricians, and journalists. In pre- 
English times these avenues of honourable remunera- 
tive employment did not exist. Then, too, tli^ere are 
many other openings for men of education and influence. 


They may as Honorary Magistrates, Municipal Commis- 
sioners, and members of District Boards, assist the 
Government in its scheme of Local Self-Government. 
We have so far been considering those who have 
the blessing: of health and are able 
to ™rk. What about those that are R^<,f 's«fl.*! 
arilicted with sickness and bodily infirmi- ing. 
ties ? For such people in bygone days 
there was no provision made by the ruling dynasty. But 
now we have hospitals and many charitable institutions. 
In 1906 there were 2,411 hospitals, which treated 405,000 
in-patients and 25,000,000 out-patients. Zenana hospi- 
tals are provided in several towns, and medical relief is 
thus carried to women whose social restrictions prevent 
their appearing in public. Besides hospitals for general 
complaints, there are lunatic and leper asylums, cholera 
hospitals, plague hospitals, small-pox hospitals, alms 
houses, homes for the aged, and orphanages for the father- 
less. They are maintained or aided by the Government 
at a great expense, and they succour individuals who 
are in distress. There are, however, occasions when, not 
isolated individuals only, but a whole population is plung- 
ed into a sea of suffering. Too much or too little rain 
brings on a famine, and millions, who from 5'ear to year 
depend entirely upon the season's crop of paddy, are 
doomed to starvation. In every country there is a 
percentage of the population that goes through life on 
insufficient food. In India out of 300 millions, 40 millions 
are believed to have but one meal a day. During a 
famine they have to go without even that meal. Fa- 
mines have occurred in India for centuries. One is said 
to have begun in Maharastra in 1396, and to have lasted 
twelve years. In 1556, another prevailed in the Mughal 
districts east of Delhi. The sumptuous Court of Akbar 
did nothing to feed the hungry. In 1770, a worse 
famine visited Bengal, and Warren Hastings spent the 
sum of Rs. 90,000 in relieving the helpless inhabitants. 
ThereWere no roads, and no means of promptly distri- 


buting rice to the famine-stricken. Obviously Rs.90,000 
was nothing in comparison to the money that should 
have been spent ; but Hastings' action marked a great 
change. It publicly accepted for the Government the 
responsibility of rescuing people from the pitiless cruelty 
of famine. His successors have inherited that responsi- 
bility, and in the famine of 1874, ^ ^^^'^ ^^ 4^ million 
rupees was spent in feeding the ryots. In the famine 
of 1897, Rs. 53,256,080 were expended, and on an 
average 2,778,000 suiferers were daily provided with 
food. The loss of life was comparatively small. 

But Government is not idle in years of plenty. 
It does not wait till calamity has overtaken its subjects. 
It does all it can to prevent disaster. Against plague 
and cholera, sanitation is insisted on ; against the rav- 
ages of small-pox vaccination is made compulsory ; to 
combat fevers quinine is dispensed through post offices ; 
against famines from drought, canals, wells, and tanks 
are excavated ; and against famines from floods, embank- 
ments are raised along rivers that are liable to overflow. 
To provide food at such times a Famine Fund is main- 
tained. There are over 14,000 miles of canals, which 
have been made at a cost of 37 crores of rupees, and 
which with their distributaries, aggregating 40,000 miles 
in length, are able to irrigate more than 15,000,000 acres 
of land. 

The preceding pages have endeavoured briefly to 
justify the statements quoted in the 
Rernarks"^ opening paragraph of this chapter. 

It is not pretended that the condition 
of India admits of no improvement, or that the admini- 
stration of the country has reached a state of perfec- 
tion. But it is claimed that the English have done more 
for the good of India than any of her earlier rulers, and 
that the Government earnestly endeavours to promote 
the real well-being of its subjects. It would be unreason- 
able to expect no weakness or defect in the administra- 
tion of so vast a country with its diverse races and" their 


conflicting interests. But of any government the highest 
praise is, that it seeks to do what is right. This may 
without hesitation be said of the Government of India, 
for the representatives of our King Emperor strenuously 
endeavour after Truth, Justice, and Unity, believing 
that ''to have won such a dominion is a great achieve- 
ment ; to hold it by fair and righteous dealings is greater; 
to weld it by wise statesmanship into a single and com- 
pact whole will be, and is, the greatest." 



Note. — Capital Letters indicate names of persons ; Italics, 
Sanskrit and Oriental Tertns. 


Abdulla Sayyid, 123, 129. 
Ardur Rahaman, Amir of 

Afglianistan, 219. 
Aborigines, the, 1-3, 13, 14, 15, 

Aborigines, civilized, 2. 

Aborigines, savage, i. 

Abul Fazl, Allami, 113. 

Adam, John, 192. 

Adams, Major Thomas, 164. 

Aclil Shahi Kingdom, 102, 119, 

Adisura, see Aditya Sen. 

Aditya Sen, 68. 

Afghan War, first, 198. 

Afghan War, second, 218. 

Afghan War, third, 219. 

Afghanistan, 7, 157. 

Afghanistan, definition of bound- 
aries of, 217, 220. 

Afghans, 93, 203. 

Afzal Khan, 127, 128. 

Agamas (traditions), 37. 

Agnew, Patrick Alexander 
Vans, 203. 

Agni (fire), II. 

Agnimitra, 42, 43. 

Agra, adornment of, by Shah 
Jahan, 1 16. 

Agra, capture of, 183. 

Agra, Durbar at, 214. 

Agricukure, 228. 

Ahalya Bai, Maharani, 132. 

Ahmad Shah Abdalt, invasion 

of India by, 125, 131, 224. 
Ahmad Shah Abdali, struggle 

of the Sikhs with, 141. 
Ahmad Shah Durani, 197. 
Ahmadnagar, capture of strong- 
hold of, III. 
Ahmed Khel, battle of, 219. 
Ahoms, 4, 225. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, peace of, 154. 
Ajatasatru, 23. 
AJivika (a sect of Jaina) monks, 

Ajmir, 71, 92. 
Ajmir, sack of, 184. 
Akbar, 110, 204. 

,, birth of, 108. 

,, coin of, 1 13. 

,, conquests of, iio-iii. 

,, death of, 1 11. 

,, gold medal of, commem- 
orating the fall of 
Asirgarh, 1 11. 

,, military system and ad- 
ministration of, III. 

,, reign of, no, et seq. 

,, revenue system of, 113. 

,, social reforms of, 114. 
Akbar, son of Aurangzeb, 121. 
Akbar ii., 125. 
Akbar Khan, 198, 199. 
Akbar Namah (Abul Fazl), 113. 
Alamgir I, see Aurangzeb. 
Alamgir II, 125. 
Alauddin Ghori, known as 
Jahansoz, 92. 


Alauddin Muhammad i, 95, 
et seq. 

Alberuni, 89, 91. 

ALBuauERauE, Alfonso d', 146. 

Alexander, 24, 51. 

,, Indian silver coin 

of, 25. ^ 

Alexander, invasion of India 
by, 23. 

Alfred, 145, 147. 

Ali Masjid, 199. 

Ali Verdi Khan, death of, 160. 

Alivval, battle of, 201. 

Aliwar, Native council of man- 
agement in state of, 217. 

Alliances, system of subsidiary, 

Almeida, Francisco d', 146. 

Altamash, 94, 106. 

,, Tanka of the emperor, 

Alvares, Pedro, 146. 

Amboyna, massacre of the Eng- 
lish at, 147. 

Amherst, William Pitt, First 
Earl rf, 192. 

Amir Khan, 188, 190, 191. 

Amir Khusrau, 106. 

Amoghavarsha, 78. 

Ananda Bai, 133. 

Ananda Pal, 86. 

Ananga Pal, 72. 

Anarchy, freedom from, 225. 

Andamans, 2,217. 

Anderson, Lieut., 203. 

Andhra dynasty, members of 
the, 50. 

Andhra, revolt of, 44. 

A?idhra-bhritvas, 49. 

Andhras, Kingdom of the, 48. 

Antiochus 'Iheos, 29. 

Anwar-ud-din, 153. 

death of, 155. 

Arab conquest, 85. 

Arabic literature, 91. 

Arabs, 76, 90, 92. 

Aramaean script, 39. 

Aranyaka, the, 20. 

Architecture, 53, 54, 116. 

Arcot, capture of, 155, 156. 

Argaon, battle of, 183. 

Arithmetic, 39. 

Aror, 85. 

Arsaces Theos, 45. 

Arts, 53. 

Aryan civilisation, 10. 

Aryan dispersion, map of the, 

Aryan immigrants, conflict of 

the earlier and later, 14. 
Aryans, the, in the Punjab, 7. 
Aryans, the, in their original 

home, 5. 
Aryans, conflict of the, with the 

Dravidians, 7. 
Aryans, first immigration of the, 

Aryans, second immigration of 

the, 13. 
Arya-varna (friend's colour), 8. 
AsAF Khan, 114. 
Asaf-ud-Daulah, 169. 
Astadliyayi, the (Panini), 36. 
Asirgarh, capture of fort of. III. 
AsoKA, inscription on the column 

at Rummin Dei, 31. 
Asoka's column, 26. 

,, ,, view of, 28. 

Asoka's " Edicts," 27, 36, 40^ 

48. ^ 
Asoka's reign, 27. 
Asrama, institution of, 19. 
Assam, conquest of, 19. 
Assaye, battle of, 183. 
Astronomy, 37, 38. 
Asvaghosa, 51. 
As%'amedlia (horse-sacrifice), 43. 
Atala Mosque, 100, 106. 
Atliarva veda, 13, 19. 
Auckland, George Eden, Earl 

of, 197, 199- 
Aurangzeb or Alamgib i, 204. 
,, character anW policy 

of, 121. 


AuRANGZEB, Contrast of, with 

Akbar, 122. 
AuRANGZEB, death of, 120. 

,, enthronement of, 117. 

,, grant of Sutanati to 
the English by, 120. 
AuRANGZEB, Moghu! Empire in 

the time of, 1 18. 
AuKANGZEB, reign of, iig. 

,, re-imposition of taxes 

on Hindu pilgriiTis by, 121. 
Aurangzeb's coin, 122. 

,, war with the Mara- 

thas in the Deccan, iig. 
Austrian Succession, War of 

the, 153. 
Ayodhya, 15. 
Ayub Khan, 219. 
AzEs, 43. 


Babar, 99, 107, 108. 

Badauni, 113. 

Baffin, 148. 

Bahadur Shah, ioi, 123, 140, 

Bahman Shah, ioi. 
Bahmani Kingdom, 102. 
Bahman Shahis, 86. 
Baillie, Lieut. -Col. WiUiam, 

Bairam Khan, 109, no. 
Baji Rao I., Second Peshwa, 

125, 130. 
Baji Rao II., Seventh Pesh-wa, 

134, 1S2, 183, 190, 191. 
Balaji Baji Rao, Third Pesh- 
wa, 125, 130, 131. 
Balaji V'ishwanath, First 

Peshwa, 129, 132. 
Bale AN, 94, 95. 
Ballala TI., 79. 
Balwant Singh, 193. 
Bana, 65. 
Bandelkijand Kingdom, 70, 72, 

87, 92-94, 104. 

Bangalore, storming of, 178. 

Bargis, 135. 

Bari Duab Canal, excavation of, 

Barid-Shahi Kingdom, 102. 
Barlow, Sir George, 184, 186. 
Barwell, Richard, 160, 
Bassein, Treaty of, 131, 134, 182. 
Batta (Bhatta), reduction of, 

Begums of Oudh, 169, 173, 175. 

Benares, Treaty of, 168. 

Bengal, Kingdom of, 70, 75, 92, 

93, 97, IOI. 

Bentinck, Lord William Cav- 
endish, 193-197. 

Bentinck, monument to, 197. 

Berar, 102. 

Bernier, Francois, 117. 

Bhagwan Das, 113. 

Bhandi, 61. 

Bharatas, 14. 

Bharatvarsha, 14. 

Bharavi, 65. 

Bharhut, 54. 

Bhartpur, capture of, 193. 

Bhartrihari, 65. 

Bhatarka, 76. 

Bhattikavya (Bhartrihari), 65. 

Bhavabhuti, 69, 90. 

Bheels or Bhils, 2. 

Bhillama, 79. 

Bhima Deva, 86. 

Bhima Pala, 87. 

Bhoja I., 70, 75. 

Bhoja II., 70. 

Bhoja Deva, 90. 

Bhonsla, 132. 

Bhutan Duars, annexation of, 

Bidar, 102, 119. 

Biderra, batde of, 163. 

Bihar, Kingdom of, 73, 93. 

Bijapur, 102, 116. 

Bimbisara, 23. 

Birbal, 113. 

BiSAL Deo, see Vigraharaja. 


Black Hole, massacre of the, 1 6i. 
BosCAWEN, Admiral the Hon. 

Edward, 154. 
Boundary Commission, 220. 
BraJima, 20. 
Brahmagupta, 65. 
Bralmian dynasty, 85. 
Brahman Shahi dynasty, 

founding of, 86. 
Brahmana (theological work), 

Brahmanic civilisation, 14, 17. 
Brahmanic doctrine of trans- 
migration, 21. 
Brahmanic laws, 38. 
Brahmanic literature, 19,36, 64. 
Brahmanic monks, 29, 33. 
Brahmanic philosophy, 52. 
Brahmanic religion, 20, 62, 63. 
Brahmanic schools, 36-39, 52. 
Brahmanism, new, 62-64, 88,89. 
Brahmanism, revival of, 62, 63, 

Brahmanism, state of, during 

Buddhist period, 52. 
Brahmanists, rival monastic 

orders among, 89. 
Brahmans, 10, 17-19, 29, 37, 50, 

51, 63-65, 85. 
Brahmasiitra bhashya (Sankara 

Ach arya), 90. 
Brahmavarta. 10. 
Brahmi script, 39. 
Brahmo Samaj, 235. 
Brass token, 98. 
Brihadratha, 29. 
Brihat Sam hit a (Varaha 

Mihira), 65. 
British India in Dalhousie's 

time, 206. 
Brydon, Siirgeon-Major 

William, 199. 
Buddha (enlightenedone), doct- 
rine of, 34. 

,, Kanishka'sgoldcoinof, 46. 

,, life of, 31. 

Buddha, relics of, inscribed 
casket of, 39. 
,, under the tree, 32. 
Buddha Charita (Asvaghosha), 

Buddhism, introduction of, in 

Ceylon, 28. 
Buddhism, new, 50. 

,, old, 28,29,35,41,46,50,53- 

,, propagation of, 29, 51. 

,, rise of, 29. 
Buddhist Council, 51. 

,, literature, 41, 64. 

,, monks, 30, 31. 
BUHLOL LoDI, 99, 100. 

Bundelkhand, Mahmud's cam- 
paign against, 87. 

Burmese War, first, 192. 
,, ,, second, 204. 
,, ,, third, 221. 

BuRNES, Sir Alexander, 198. 

BussY, see Bussy-Castelnau. 

Bussy-Castelnau, Charles 

Joseph Patissier, Marquis de, 

Buxar, battle of, 164. 


Cabot, John, 147. 

Cabral, 146. 

Cadet Corps, establishment of, 

Calcutta, early history of, 

120, 160. 
Calcutta Madrasah, 232. 
Cami'BELL, Sir CoWn, 211. 
Canals, Roads and, 27, 202, 217, 

Canning, Charles John, Earl, 

,, work of, as Viceroy, 214. 
Caron, Francis, 149. 
Cartier, John, 167 
Caste, 8, 17, 18 ,38. C' 
Caste-system, origin of, 17. 


Cavagnari, Sir Louis, 2ig. 

Cawnpore massacre, 211. 

Central India, state of, 186, 194. 

Ceylon, 2, 15, 22, 52. 

Ceylon, introduction of Budd- 
hism in, 28. 

Chach, 85. 

Chait Sing, Raja of Benares, 
169, 173. 

Chaitanya, 105. 

Chaityas (temples), 54. 

Chakrayudha, 69, 70, 75. 

Chalukya dynasty. Eastern, 81. 
,, ,, Western, 78. 

Chalukyas, 61, 76-79. 

Chalukyas, later Western, 
known as Chalukyas of 
Kalyani, 79. 

Chama Raj, 166. 


Chand (Chanda) Sahib, 155, 

Chandels, of Mahaba, 72. 

Chandernagore, capture of, 161. 

Chandra Deva, 71. 

Chandragiri, 102. 

Chandra Gupta, 26, 27, 29, 37. 

,, ,, and his Lichhavi 
queen, gold coin of, 56, 
Chandra Gupta I., 57, 64. 
Chandra Gupta II., 48, 56, 57. 
Charaka, 53. 
Charnock, Job, 160. 
Charter, renewal of East India 

Company's, 195. 
Chasthana, 47. 
Chant, 120, 130, 139. 

,, exaction of, by Marathas, 

Chedi (Kalachuri) era, 50. 

Chedi Kingdom, the, 77, 183. 
Chillianwala, battle of, 203. 
Chingis Khan, 95. 
Chinsura, taking of, by Lord 

Clive^ 147. 
Chitral disturbance, 13, 221. 
Chitu, 188. 

Chohans of Ajmirand Delhi, the, 

71, 92. 
Chola Kingdom, the, Bi. 

,, ,, revival of Hinduism 

in, 105. 
Cholas, 22, 23, 78, 82, 83. 
Christian Settlement, first, in 

India, 54. 
Christianity, 147. 
Civil Service, 236. 
Civil Service Code, publication 

of, 179. 
Civil Service, reforms in, 179. 
Classes, origin of, 8, 17. 
Classical Sanskrit literature, 

commencement of, 64. 
Clive, Robert, Lord, 147, 155, 

156, 158. 
Clive, first period, 159. 
,, second period, 160. 
,, third period, 165. 
Code of Manu, 52. 
Coins : 

Akbar's coin, 1 13. 
Akbar's Gold Medal com- 
memoratingfall of Asirgarh, 
Aurangzeb's coin, 122. 
Brass token of Muhammad 

II., 98. 
Coin of Jahangir and Nur 

Jahan, 1 14. 

Coin of Vishnu Vardhana, 59. 

Deccan coin of Chandra 

Gupta and his Lichhavi 

queen, 56. 

Gold coin of Gangeya Deva, 

Gold Sikandar as-Sani coin 
of Muhammad I., 96. 

Indian coin of Mahmud, 88. 

Kanishka's gold coin of 
Buddha, 46. 

Silver Coin of Alexander, 25. 

Tanka of Emperor Altamsh, 
Collectors of Revenue, 167. 


CoMBERMERE^ Field-Mai'slial 
Stapleton Cotton, First Vis- 
count, 193. 

Coni»ientary on the Vedas 
(Sayana), 105. 

Company's monopoly, 187. 

Commerce, expansion of, 230. 

Commercial Intelligence Depart- 
ment, establishment of, 223. 

Condition of the people, io-i2, 
16-19. 37. 38. 50-52, 62-64, 

CoNTi, Nicolo, 103. 

Contract System, provincial, 

Convention of Wargaon, 170. 

Convocation of Prayaga, 63. 

CooTE, Lieut. -Gen. Sir Eyre, 
156, 162, 171. 

Copper-plates, recording grants 
of land on, 63. 

CoRNWALLis, Charles, First 
Marquis, 176. 

CoRNWALLis, British India in 
the time of, 177. 

CoRNVv^vLLis, death of, 185. 

CuRZON, George Nathaniel, 
First Baron, 222. 


Dad Kishen Raj, 166. 

Dahir, 85. 

Dalhousie, James Andrew 
Brown- Ramsay, First Mar- 
quis, 131, 202-8, 230. 

Dalhousie's work, estimate of, 

Damayanti, 16. 

Dandin, 65. 

Dandupant, see Nana Sahib. 

Dantidurga, 78. 

Dara, death of, 117. 

Darius Hystaspis, 23. 

Darjeeling- made summer resi- 
dence of Government, 195. 

DasakumarcJiarita, (Dandin), 

Dasannmis, 89. 
Dasaratha, 15, 28. 
Dasaratha, Maurya, 28. 
Dasa-var}ia, 8, 15. 
Dates of ancient Indian History, 

Daud Khan, death of, iii. 
Daulat Khan Lodi, 107 
Daulat Rao Sindhia, 214. 
Davis, 148. 
Debal, 85. 
Deccan, the, iii. 

,, attempted conquest of 

the, by Shah Jahan, 115. 
Deccan, climate of the, v. 

,, Kingdom of the, loi. 
,, people of the, v. 
,, temperature of the, v. 
,, vegetable products of 
the, V. 
Delhi, batde of, 183. 

,, founding of, 72. 

., Kingdom of, 99. 

,, proclamation at, by Lord 
Amherst, 193. 
Demetrios, 42. 
Deogaon, Treaty of, 183. 
Deslialiikaris, 137. 
DesJipandias, 137. 
Devabhuti, 49. 
Devagiri, 79, 96, 97. 
Dharasena IV., 62, 75, 76. 
Dharmapala, 69, 73. 
Dharniashastra, 52, 64. 
Dharniasiitras, (manuals for 

civil and criminal law), 37. 
Dharnikot, 48. 
Diiruva, 70. 
Dhuvasena, 62. 
Dhulip Singh, 144, 201, 203. 
Digvijaya (world conquest), 59. 
DiLWAR Khan, 100. 
Din-i-llalii, 1 12. 
Dinnaga, 65. •^ 

Diu, loi, 146. 


Diwan, 113. 

Divvani of Bengal and Bihar, 
grant of, to East India Com- 
pany, by Shah Alam II., 125. 

Dhvan-i-Aui, 116, 117. 

Diivan-i-Khas, 116. 

Donab3'u, fall of, 192. 

Dost Ali, 151, 155. 

Dost Muhammad, 144, 197, 

Drake, Roger, 160, 161. 

Dravidian Kingdoms, 23. 
,, languages, 22. 

Dravidians, conflict of the, with 
the Aryans, 7. 

Dronasimha, 59, 76. 

Dual system of Government, 

DuFFERiN, Frederick Temple 
Hamilton-Temple Blackwood, 
First Marquis of, 220. 

Dumas, 151, 152. 

DuPLEix, Joseph Fran9ois, Mar- 
quis, 152, 153, 156. 

Durbar at Agra, 214. 
,, Delhi, 218. 


Dutch, the, in India, 147. 

Dvara samudra, 79, 96. 



Earthquakes, 222. 
Eastern Chalukyas, 81. 
East India Company, abolition 
of, 213. 
,, and the Dutch, 148. 
,, formation of, 148. 
,, grant of Dewani of Ben- 
gal and Bihar to, 125. 
,, placed under direct con- 
trol of a Board of 
Ministers, 174. 
East Inci'a Company, renewal 
of charter of, 195. 

East India Company's pice of 

1833. .195- 
Economic condition, ,16. 
Edinburgh, Duke of, visit to 

India of, 217. 
"Edicts" of Asoka, 27,36, 40, 48. 
Education, 38, 202, 207, 217. 

Education and art of writing, 38. 
Edward vii. Emperor of India, 


Edwardes, Major-Gen. Sir 

Herbert Benjamin, 203. 
Elgin I., Eighth Earl, James 

Bruce, 214. 
Elgin II., Ninth Earl, Victor 

Alexander Bruce, 221, 222. 
Ellenborough, Edward Law, 
First Earl, 199. 
,, recall of, 200. 
Emigration, 231. 
Empire — 

First (Maurya), 22, et seq. 
Second (Gupta), 55, et seq. 
Third (Turki), 92, et seq. 
P'ourth (Mughal), 107, etseq. 
Fifth (British), 214, et seq. 
English and the French, struggle 
between the, 153-157. 
,, attempts to reach India, 

,, factory at Hughli, 116. 
,, made the official language, 

,, massacre of the, at 

Amboyna, 147. 
,, settlements, early, 149. 
EuDEMos, 25. 
Eukratides, 42. 
Europe and India contrasted, i. 
,, ,, in early days, 

Factory at Hughli, of the 
English, 1x6. 



Fahian, 57. 

,, travels in North India of , 

Faizi, 1 13. 
Famine, 218, 222, 237, 238. 

,, in Orissa, 215. 

,, of 1877, 218. 
Faruksiyar, 123, 160. 
Fatehpur Sikri, battle of, 108. 
Faujdars, 1 1 2. 
P'eudatory Chiefs, 216. 
Feudatory States, Lord Mayo's 

dealings with, 216. 
FiRDAUsr, gi. 
First Christian settlement in 

India, 54. 
First (Maurya) Empire 25, 
et seq. 

,, ,, causes of disruption 
of, 41. 

,, ,, extinction of, 44. 
FiRUZ II., 103. 
FiRUZ III., gS, 99, 100, 103. 
FiRUZ Shah II., see Jalaluddin. 
Fitch, Ralph, 160 
FoRDE, Col. Francis, 162. 
Francis, .Wr Philip, 169, 174, 175. 
French, Arrival in India of the, 

French Empire, attempt to 

establish a, 153. 

,, possessions in India, 

present, 157. 
vs. English, 153-157. 
Frobisher, 148. 


Gaekwar, 132. 
Gaharwar dynasty, the, 72. 
Gaharwar Rajputs, 72. 
Gama, Vasco Da, 145, 146. 
Ganda, 71. 

Gandamak, Treaty of, 219. 
Ganda Deva, 88. 
Gandhara Kingdom, 58. 

Gandhara school of art, 53, 54. 
Ganga dynasty, 45, 79. 
Ganga Puri, 82. 
Ganges Canal, excavation of, 

Gangeya Deva, gold coin of, 84. 
Cniidavaha ( V'akpatirajaj, 69. 
Gautama, see Buddha. 
Gautamu^utra, 47. 
Geriah, batde of, 164. 
Ghazi-uddin, 125. 


Ghazi-uddin Ghori, 93. 
Ghazi-uddin Tughlak, 97. 
Ghazni Empire, 87. 
Ghori dynasty, 93, 94. 
Gillespie, Major-Gen. Sir 

Robert Rollo, 189. 
Gitagovinda (Jayadeva), 90. 
GoDDARD, Brig-Gen. Thomas, 

Godeheu, 156. 
Golden mosque, 106. 
Golkonda Kingdom, 102. 
GoLLAS, see Mihiragula. 


Gonds, 2. 

GOPALA, 70, 73. 

GouGH, Hugh, First Viscount, 

200, 201, 203. 
Government, dual system of, 

GoviNDA Singh, Guru of the 
Siklis, 140. 

GOVINDA III., 69, 70, 78, 81. 

Grseco-Bactrian conquest, 42. 

Grammar, 35, 36. 

Grand Trunk Road, extension 

of, 204. 
Granth (Nanak), 140. 
"Great Golden Mosque" at 

Gaur, 106. 
Great Plain, ii. 
"Great Proconsul of India," 

the, 185. 
Great Satrapy, rise of ^.he, 47. 
Grecian culture, 51. 


Grihya siitras (manuals of 

domestic rites), 37. 
Gujarat, battle of, 203. 

,, Kingdom of, 46, 47, 56, 
62, 67, 70, 75, 76, 92, 96, 
98, 99, lOI. 
GuLAB Singh, 201, 202. 
Gupta dynasty, 55-57, 63, 68, 


,, ,, later, 67, 68, 73. 

,, empire, 56, 58-61, 76. 

,, era, 56. 
Gurjara empire, 69, 70, 76, 84. 
Gurkha war, 189. 
Guru Govinda Singh, see 

Govinda Singh. 
Gwalior, siege of, 87. 

,, taken under British pro- 
tection, 200. 


Haidar Ali, 132, 165, 166, 170, 
172, 173, 181. 

,, death of, 172. 
Haiderabad, battle of, 200. 
Haihayas, 83. 
Hajjaj, 85. 
Hala, 49. 
Hamilton, Surgeon William, 

Hara Pala, 80. 
Harakali Nataka ( Vigraha- 

raja), 71. 
Hardinge, Henry, First \'is- 

count, 201-2. 
Hari Gupta, 68. 
Harihara I., 102. 
Harihara ii., 102. 
Hariharpur, capture of, 190. 
Harris, George, First Baron, of 

Seringapatam and Mysore, 

HARSHA'^autograph of King, 61. 


Harsha Deva, Deccan coin of, 

Harsha Deva Siyaka, 73. 
Harsha era, 62. 
Harsha Vardhana, 61, 62, 64, 

75. 77- 
Hasan Gangu, see Bahman 

Hastings, Francis Rawdon, 
First Marquis, 1 87 -191. 
,, internal measures of, 191. 
Hastings, Right Hon. Warren, 
133, 156, 160, 166, 167, 
175, 232, 238. 
,, impeachment of, 175. 
,, summary of work of, 174. 
Hastivarman, 80. 
Havelock, Major-Gen. Sir 

Henry, 211. 
Hemu, 109. 

High Court of Calcutta, estab- 
lishment of, 169, 214. 
Himalayan region, iii. 
Hinayana (little vehicle), 51. 
Hinduism, 50, 235. 

;, complete establishment 

of, 88. 
,. decline of, 105. 
,, rise of, 62-63. 
Hindustan, iii, 68. 
Hindustani, 106. 
HOLKAR, 132. 

HoLWELL, John Zephaniah,i6i, 

Horse-sacrifice, medal of the, 63, 

,, revival of the, 63. 
HouTMANN, Cornelius, 147. 
Hoysala Kingdom, 102. 
Hoysalas, the, 79,96. 
Hudson, 148. 

Hughli, English factory at, 116. 
Human sacrifices, 202, 235. 
Humayun, ioi, 108-110. 

,, death of no. 
Huns, 58, 60, 67. 



HuSAiN Ali, Sayyid, 123, 129. 
HuvisHKA, 46. 
Hystaspis Darius, 23. 


Ibn-Batuta, 103, 106. 
Ibrahim Lodi II., 99, 107. 
Ibrahim SHARai, 106. 
Ibrahim Sur, seizure of Delhi 

by, 109. 
I mad Shahi kingdom, 102. 
Imamuddin, 202. 
Immigrations, north-eastern, 3. 
Immigrations, north-western, 
7, 12. 
,, southern, 14, 21. 
Imperial service troops, 227. 
Titles, 68, 70, 73, 76. 
Income-tax, reduction of, 223. 
India and Europe contrasted, i . 
,, Bill, 174. 
,, direction from which may 

be invaded, in. 
„ Europe and, in early 

days, 145. 
„ likened to a fortress, vi. 
,, past and present, 224-235. 
,, paucity of harbours of, v. 
,, peculiar position of, vi. 
,, physical features, i-vi. 
,, undertheCrown, 2x4,^^5^9. 
Indian Empire — 

First, 22, et seq. 
Second, 55, et seq. 
Third, 92, et seq. 
Fourth, 107, et seq. 
Fifth, 214, et seq. 
Indian National Congress, 236. 
,, Press, liberty given to, 197. 
,, Trinity, 20. 
Indians, admission of, into the 

public service, 193. 
Indo-Aryan people, the, 15. 
Indo- Aryans, culture of, 9. 
,, language of, 39. 

Indo-Aryans, political condition 
of, 16. 
,, states, 15. 
,, united, in Northern India, 

Indo-Europeans, the, 5. 

,, dispersion of the, 6. 

Indo- Parthian Kingdom, over- 
throw of, 46. 

Indra, II, 20. 

Indra III., 70. 

Indraraja III., 78. 

Indravarman, 45, 

Indrayudha, 69, 75. 

Indus and its tributaries, old 
course of the, 74. 

Industries, 228. 

Infanticide, among Khonds, 202. 
,, suppression of, 194. 

Invasion, by Alexander, 23-25. 
,, freedom from, 224. 

Iranians, 7. 

Iron Pillar and Qutub Minar, 57. 

Islam, introduction of, 90, 91. 
,, spread of, 104. 

Islam Shah, 109. 

Isvarasena, 50. 


Jahandar, 123. 
Jahangir, 114. et seq, 149. 

,, and Nur Jahan, coin of, 
Jahansoz, see Alauddin. 
Jails, 233. 
Jain literature, 36, 37, 64. 

,, monks, 89. 
Jainism, 29, 30, 41. 

,, rise of, 29. 
Jajalla I., 84. 
Jalaluddin Khalji, 95. 
Janaka, 16. 
Jarasandha, 16, 
Jaunpur, Kingdom, 100. 
Jaya Chandra, 72, 9*^. 
Jaya Deva, 90. 



Jayaditya, 65. 
Jaya Gupta, 68. 
Jaya Pala, 71. 

,, of Kanauj, 86, 87. 
,, of the Punjab, 86. 
Jayapida, 69. 

Jeswant Rao Holkar, 134. 
Jeswant Singh, 121. 
Jhansi, Ra7ii of, 210. 
Jhi Mall, 113. 

Jina (Spiritual Conqueror), 31. 
JiviTA Gupta, 68; 
Jiziya, 91. 

,, re-imposition of, by 

Aurangzeb, 120. 
,, withdrawal of, by 
Akbar, 112 
Jumma Musjid, 116. 
Jumna Canal, 98. 
Junagarh, inscriptions on the 
rock of, 47. 


Kabir, 105. 

Kabirpanthis, 105. 

Kabul, embassy to, 187. 

Kadambari (Bana), 65. 

Kadambas, 49. 

Kadphises I., 46. 

Kailasa, Rock-temple of, 53. 

Kaiqobad, 95. 

Kakatiya dynasty, 84. 

Kakka II., 79. 

Kalachuri dynasty, 50, 56, 72. 

Kalachuri era, 48. 

Kalanga, capture of fort of, 189. 

Kalidasa, 59, 65. 

Kalinga, 27, 42, 43, 45. 

„ conquest of, by Asoka, 27. 

,, independence of, 42. 
Kalinjar, siege of, 87. 
Kanarese, 2. 

Kanauj, 'capital, 61, 68, 87. 
,, dynasty, 61. 

Kanauj, kingdom, 68. 

,, Mahmud's campaign 

against, 87. 
,, sack of, 71. 

Kanchipur, 78, 83. 

Kandahar, 188. 

Kangra, capture of fort of, 87. 

Kanishka, 46, 51. 

,, gold coin of Buddha, 46. 

Kanvayana dynasty, 44. 

Kanyakubja, 15. 

Kapilavastu, 31, 33. 

Karauna dynasty, 97, 104. 

Karim Khan, 188. 

Kay ma (acts), 21, 34. 

Karnadeva, 84. 

Karnatic War, first, 153. 
,, second, 154. 

Karor, battle of, 45. 

Kasikavriti ( Vamana and Jaya- 
ditya), 65.^ 

Kathseans (Kathis), 24. 

Kathiawar, establishment of a 
college for chiefs of, 217. 

Katyayana, 81, 82. 

Kauravas, 14. 

Kausambi, 15, 56. 

Keralas, 22, 23. 

Khalji dynasty, of Delhi, 73, 84. 

94, 95. 97> 103- 

,, of Malwa, 100. 
Khalsa (Sikh commonwealth), 

140, 141, 142, 144, 201, 203. 

,, army, misgovernment of, 
Kharavela, 42, 49. 
Kharoshthi form of writing, 40. 
Khasis, 2. 
Khisr Khan, 99. 
Khonds, 202. 
Khusrau Malik, 88. 
Khusru, 97. 
Khusru II, 66, 77. 
Kiratarjuniya (Bharavi), 65. 
Kirtivarman II, 78. 
Koch, 225. 
Koh-i-Nur, 124. 




Kolarians, 2. 

Kols, 2. 

Kosala, 15, 23. 

Krishna, 15, 48, 80. 

Krishna II., 83. 

Krishna Gupta. 68, 73. 

Krishna Raja, 73. 

Krishna Raja Wadiar, 166, 

Krishnavarna, 8, 15. 
Kshatrapa (satrap), 25. 
Kshatriya, 17, 18, 23, 30, 31. 
KuMARA Gupta I., 57. 
Kumara Gupta II., 60 

KUMRAN, 108. 

Kumarila Bhatta, 90. 

Kurola, battle of, 180. 

Kiiruksheti'a, 10. 

Kurus, 10. 

Kushana empire, establishment 

of, 46, 53, 58. 
Kushana invasion, 46. 
Kushanas, the great, 40, 47, 51, 


,, the little, 58, 86. 
Kusinagara, 33. 


La Bourdonnais, Bertrand 
Francis Mahe de, arrival of, 

Lahore, treaty of, 201 

,, second treaty of, 202. 
Lake, Gerard, first I'iscount, 

125, 183, 184, "193. 
Lakshmana Sena, 75. 
Lakshmaniya era, 75. 
Lalitaditya Muktapida, 69. 
Lalkot or Red P'ort, 72. 
Lalliya, 86. 
Lally, Thomas Arthur, Count 

de, and Baron de Tollendal, 

156, 162. 
Lancaster, 148. 
Land, recording grants of, on 

copper-plates, 63. 
Language, Aryan, 8. 

,, Dravidian, 22. 

,, Indo- Aryan, 39. 
Lansdow^ne, Henry Charles 

Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice,F?yif/r 
Marquis, 221. 
Lapse, Doctrine of, 204, 205, 

208, 213, 227. 
Laswari, battle of, 183. 
Law, 151, 
Lawrence, Sir Henry Mount- 

gomery, 202, 203, 211. 

,, John Laird Mair, First 
Baron, 203, 204, 215. 
Learned professions, 237. 
Leeds, William, 148. 
Legislative Councils, enlarge- 
ment of Imperial and Pro- 
vincial, 221. 
Lenoir, 151. 
Liaka, 44. 
Lichhavis, 56. 
Linga, the, 20, 88. 
Literature, Arabic, 89. 

,, Brahmanic, 19. 

,, Persian, 89, 91. 

,, Sanskrit, 19, 36, 64, 89. 
Little Kushans, 58. 
Local Self Govt. Act, 1882, 220. 
Lodi dynasty, end of, 108. 
Lower Burma, annexation of, 

Lucknow, treaty of, 181. 
Lumbini Park, now known as 

Rummin Dei, 31. 
Lysias, 43. 
Lytton, Edward Robert Bulwer, 

First Earl, 218. 


Maabar Coast, 96. 
MacNaghten, Sir William, 

198. i 

MACPHERSON,6VrJohn, 174, 176. 



Madhava, 105. 

Madhu Rao, Fourth Peshwa, 

Madhu Rao II, Sixth Peshwa, 

I33> 170. 171- 
Madhu Rao Narayana See 

Madhu Rao II. 
Madhya-desa, 17. 
Madras, siege of, 156. 
,, treaty of, 171. 
Magadha, 16, 22-26. 
Magha, go. 
Magistrates required to perform 

duties of both judges and 
■' collectors of revenue, igi. 
Mahaba, 72, 84. 
MaliabJiarata, 14. 
Maharaja, 15, 56, 76. 
Maharajpur, battle of, 200. 
Maharashtra, 48, 121. 
Maharathyias, 48. 
Mahavira, founder of Jainism, 

Mahay ana (great Vehicle), 51. 
Mahel capture of, 171. 
Mahendra, 28. 
Mahendrapala, 70. 
Mahendravarman II., 81, 
Mahipala, 70, 75. 
Mahmud I., 95, 96. 
Mahmud II., 97, 99. 
Mahmud, of Ghazni, 71, 85-88, 

Mahmud, campaigns of, against 

Indian kingdoms 87. 
Mahmud, sack of Kanauj by 

Sultan, 71. 
Mahmud, Indian coin of, 88. 
Maiwand, battle of, 219. 
Malati Madhaba (Bhavabhuti), 

Malava dynasty, 24, 45, 47, 59, 

Malik Kafur, 80, 82, 83, 96. 
Malik Khusru, 82. 
Malik'^Sarwar, 100. 
Malkher, 73, 78. 

Malloi (Malava) tribe, 24. 
Malmsbury, William, of, 147. 
Malwa kingdom, 42, 47, 58, 73, 

77, 90, 92, 93, 96, 99, 100, loi. 
Man Singh, 113. 
Manava Dliarnia Shastra, 52. 
Mandasor, 61. 
Mangalore, treaty of, 172. 
Manipur rebellion, 221. 
Mansabdars, 112, 138. 
Mansel, Charles Grenville, 203. 
Mansura kingdom, 85. 
Manu, Code of, 52. 
Maphuz Khan, 154. 
Maqbul Khan, 98. 
Mara (the Evil One), 32. 
Maratha administration, 137. 

,, army, 135. 

chiefs, confederacy of, 131, 
139, 182, 184, 185. 

,, confederacy, causes of 
downfall of, 134. 

,, revenue system, 138. 

,, system of war, 136. 
Maratha war, first, 133, 170. 

,, second, 125, 182. 

,, third, 183, 191. 
Marathas, rise of the, 127. 
Marathi language, 48. 
Maritime trade, vi, 39. 
Martin, 150-151. 
Maruts, 11. 
Mathura, 15, 44, 87. 
Maues (Mogos), 44. 
Mauritius, 187. 
Maurya empire, 22, etseq. 
Mayo, Richard Southwell 

Bourke, Sixth Earl, 215-217, 

227, 232. 

,, assassination of, 217. 
Mazimdar, 138. 
Medicine, 38, 53. 
Megasthenes, 37, 82. 
Meghduta (Kalidasa), 65. 
Meghavarana, 56. 
Menander (or Milinda), 43. 
Metcalfe, Sir Charles, 197. 



Miani, battle of, 200. 

MlHIRAGULA, 59, 60. 
Mihiri clan, 76. 

MiLDENHALL, John, I48. 

MiLiNDA (Menander) 43. 
Mimanisa (enquiry), 52. 

MiNTo I., Sir Gilbert Elliot, 

first Earl, 186. 
MiNTO II., Gilbert John Murray 

Kynynmond Elliot, Fourth 

Earl, 223. 
Mir Jafar, see Mir Muham- 
mad Jafar. 
MiR JuMLA, 1 19. 
Mir Kasim Alt, 163, 164. 
MiR Muhammad Jafar, better 

known as Mir Jafar, 161 162, 

Missils (Sikh confederacies), 

Mogos (or Maues), 44. 
MoiRA, Lo7'd, see Hastings, 

Marquis of. 
Mong-hyr, capture of, 164. 
Mon-khmer, i. 

Monopoly, abolition of Com- 
pany's Indian, 187. 
Monotheism, 20. 
MoNSON, Brigadier-Gen. the 

Hon. William, 1S4. 
Moplas, 146. 
Moti Masjid, 116. 
MuAZZAM, 123. 
Mubarak Shah, 80. 
Mudki, battle of, 201. 
Mughal empire, break-up of, 

,, ,, in the time of Aurang- 
zeb, 118. 
Muhammad I., Khalji, 73, 95, 
96, 97, 104. 

,, gold Sikandar-as-Sani coin 

of, 96. 
Muhammad II., Tughlak 97, 

98, loi, 104. 
Muhammad, Brass token of, g8. 

Muhammad Adil Shah, 109. 
Muhammad Alauddin, 92, 95. 
Muhammad Ali, 155, 156, 165. 

Bahadur Shah, 125, 126. 
Ghori, 67, 72, 88, 93, 94. 
i-Bakhtiyar, 75, 93,. 
-i-Oasim, 85. 
Shah, 123, 124. 
Muhammadan conquest, the, 
69, 75, 86, 90, 92. 

,, culture, 105. 

,, Empire, first, 94, et seq. 
MuizuDDiN, see Muhammad 

Mularaja I., 76. 
Mulhar Rao Holkar, 191. 
Mulraj Diwan, Governor of 

Multan, 203 
Multan, capture of, 203. 

,, kingdom, 85. 
MuMTAJ Mahal, 116. 
Mundas, i. 

Municipalities, 320, 231, 235. 

(Badauni), 113. 
Murad, 117. 

,, death of, 117. 
Murray, Col., 184. 
Mutiny, Sepoy, 208-212. 
Muzaffar I., of Gujarat, loi. 
MuzAFFAR Jang, 155, 156. 
Mysore, 165, 166, 181. 
Mysore war, first, 165. 

,, ,, second, 156, 171. 

,, ,, third, 177. 

,, ,, fourth 180. 


Nadir (Nazir) Jang, 155. 
Nadir Shah, 124, 141, 151,224. 
,, ,, invasion of India by, 
124. ff 

Nagabhata, 69, 70. 



N agar j una, 51. 
Nagarjuni caves, 29. 
Nagarkot, capture of, 87. 
Nahapana, 47, 49. 
Najmud-daulah, 165. 
Nala, 16. 
Nalopakliyana, 16. 
Nana Farnavis, 133, 170, 178, 
. 180. 
,, ,, death of, 182 

Nana Sahib (Dandu Pant), 
130, 205, 209, 210. 

Nanak, Guru of the Sikhs, 140. 

Nanda dynasty, 23, 24, 26. 

Nanda Kumar, 170, 175. 

Nandivarman, 81. 

Nanja Raj, 166. 

Napier, Sir Charles, 200. 

Napier, of Magdala and 
Caryngton, Robert Cornehus, 
first Baron, 212. 

Napoleon Bonaparte, 180. 

Narasimha Gupta, 59. 

Narasimha Varman, 78. 

Narayan Rao, fifth Peshwa, 

133. 170- 
Nasrat Shah, 106. 
Nata (or Naya) clan, 30. 
National Congress, 235, 236. 
Natives in service, 193, 202, 

208, 213. 
Nazir Ali, 165. 
Nazir fNadir) Jang, 155. 
Neill, Brigadier-Gen. James 

George Smith, 211. 
Nelson, Horatio, Viscount, and 

Duke of Bronte, 180. 
Nestorian Missionaries, 54. 
New Buddhism, rise of , 50. 
New Delhi, foundation of, by 

Shah Jahan, 116. 
Newbery, John, 148. 
Newfoundland, discovery of, 

Newspapers, 192, 197, 235. 

NiadeSii, 138- 
Nicaea, 25. 

Nicholson, Major-Gen. Sir 

Lothian, 21 1. 
NicoLO Conti, 103. 
Nikator, 26. 
Nine Gems of Vikramaditya's 

court, 64. 
Nirgranthas, 30. 
Nirvana (peace), 35. 
Nishadha, 16. 

Niti Sataka (Bhartrihari), 65. 
Nizam Shahi kingdom, 102. 
Nizam-ul-Mulk, 154. 
Non-intervention policy, 179. 
Non- Regulation Provinces, 207. 
Northbrook, Thomas George 

Y^armg, first Earl, 218. 
Northern Empire, disruption of 

the, 68. 
NoTT, Major Gen. Sir William, 

NuR Jahan, i 14. 

Nyaya, 53. 


Ochterlony, Brigadier-Gen. 

Sir David, 189, 190. 
Ohind, 24. 
Orissa famine, 218. 
O'Shaughnessy, 229, 
Oudh, annexation of, 205, 206, 

„ assumption of title of king 
by Nawab Wazir of, 202. 

,, Begums of, 169, 173. 

,, Jaunpur kingdom, 1 00. 

,, warningto king of, against 
misrule, 202. 
OuTRAM, Lieut.-Gen. Str 

James, 211. 


Pagahs, 135. 

Painting, cultivation of the art 
of, 65. 



Paithan, 49. 

Pala dynasty, 73. 

Pali or Prakrit language, 36. 

Pallava kingdom, 80. 

Pallavas, 50, 56 79, 81. 

Panchala, 15. 

Panda vas, 14. 

Pandyas, 22, 23, 77, 78, 82. 

Panini, 36, 37, 65. 

Panipat, first battle of, 107. 

,, second battle of, 109. 

,; third battle of, 125, 141, 
Panniar, battle of, 200. 
Pantheism, philosophic, 20. 
Paradis, 154. 
Paris, treaty of, 156. 
Parmar dynasty, 71, 72, 73. 
Parasvanath, 30. 
Parthian invasion, 45. 

,, race, 41. 
Patala, 137. 

Pataliputra fort, 23, 26, 42. 
Patanjali, 38, 42. 
Pathan empire, [a misnomer], 

94, et seq. 
Pauravas, 24. 
Peacock throne of Shah Jahan, 

Permanent Settlement of 

Bengal, 178. 
Persia, embassy to, 187. 
Persian gulf, 3. 

,, language, 106, 195. 

,, literature, 91 . 
Peshwas, 129-134. 

,, house of the, 130. 
Philosophic pantheism, 20. 
Philosophy, 12, 20, 53. 
Pice, Compan3''s, of 1833, '95 
Pillar, inscribed, 26, 28. 56, 
Pindari war, 190. 
Pindaris, 187, 189, 225-227. 
Piprahva stupa, 33. 
Pirates, 226. 
Pitt's India Bill, 174. 
Piyadassi (the gracious) assum- 
ption of title of, by .Asoka, 27. 

Plague, 221. 

Plain of northern India, the 

great, ii. 
Plassey, battle of, 161, 208. 
Pliny, 82. 
Police, 233. 
Political condition, 16. 

,, progress, 234. 
Pollock, Field-Marshal Sir 

George, 199. 
Pondichery, capital of the 

French, 150-154 156, 157. 
Popham, Lt.-Gen. William, 

171. 173- 
PoRos, defeat of, Jhelum, 24. ' 

,, murder of, 25. 

Portuguese, the, in India, 145, 


arrival of the, 103. 

possessions in India, 146- 

Post and Telegraph Depts, 229. 
PoTTiNGER, Maj or EXdr ad, 198. 
Prabhakara Vardhana, 61, 
Prajapati ( Lord of the Creation j , 

Prajnaparamita ( Nagarjunaj, 


Prakrit (Pali) language, 36, 64. 

Pravarasena II, 61, 
Prayaga, 56. 

,, religious convocation at, 
Prendergast, Sir Harry North 

Dalrymple, 221. 
Press, freedom of \'ernacular, 


,, liberty given to India, 197. 
Prithvirvja (or Rai Pithora;, 

72, 93- 
Proclamation at Delhi, by Lord 

Amherst, 193. 

,, of Oueen Victoria, 213. 
Prome, capture of, 192. 
Provincial contract system, 215. 
Ptolemy, 47, 49. * 

PuLAKESiN I., 77. 



PULAKESIN. II., 61, 66, 77. 
PULOMAVI II., 47, 49. 

Punjab, early historv of the, 

PuRA Gupta, 58. 
Puranas, 44, 64. 
Purnia, rebellion ot Raja of, 

Purva iniiiuimsu, 52. 
Pushyamitra, 24, 49. 


Oarmatians, 85. 

Oueen's Proclamation, 21^, 216, 


Outb Minar, 106. 

Outb Shahi kingdom, 102. 

OuTBUDDIN .\lBAK, 72, 93. 

Outub .Minar, Iron Pillar and, 57. 

Raghoba, 120, 121, 132, 133, 
170, 171. 

invasion of the Punjab 

by, I3»- 
Raghuji Bhonsla, 134, 152. 
Raghunath Rao, see Raghoba. 
Raghuvamsa (Kalidasa), 59, 65. 
Raijit Singh, 189. 
Railways, 217, 231. 
Rajagriha, 23. 
Raj any a, 9. 
Rajaraja I., 82. 
Rajasekhara, 90. 
Ra'iaiarangini (Kalhana), 60, 

Rajendra I., 82. 
Rajendra II., 82. 
Rajgarh, Sivaji's fort at, 128. 
Rajput -revolt during Aurang- 

zeb's reign, 120. 
Rajputana, 71, no, 222. 

Rajputs, pacification of, by 
Bahadur Shah, 123. 

Rajyapala, 71. 

Rajyavardhana, 61. 

Rama, 15. 

Ramabhadra, 70. 

Ramadeva, 80. 

Ramananda, 105. 

Ra.vianuja, 105. 

Ramayana, 15. 

Rammohan Roy, Raja, 195. 

Rana Sanga, 108. 

Rani Bai, 85. 

Ranjit Singh, 143, 186, 197. 

Rashtrakutas, 73, 78, 79, 80. 

Rathiyas (Marathasj, 127. 

Ratnavali (Harsha), 64. 

Rawar, 85. 

Raya dynast)-, 85. 

Raziyyat, Begum, 94. 

Regulating Act, 168. 

Religion, 20, 233, 235. 

Religion, Brahmanic, 20. 

Religious toleration, 233. 

Rent .\ct, 214. 

Residency of Lucknow, 211. 

Rich (vedic verse), 19. 

Rigveda, 19. 

description of the, 9. 

RiPON, George Frederick Sa- 
muel, First Marquis, 219. 

Roads and canals, 231. 

Roberts, Frederick Sleigh, 
First Earl, 219. 

Rock-temple of Kailas, 53. 

Roe, Sir Thomas, 149. 
,, embassy of, 115. 

Rohilla war, 168. 

Rohillas, 125, 168. 

Rose, Sir Hugh, 212. 

Rudradaman, 47, 49. 

Rudrasimha, 48. 

Rummin Dei, 28, 31. 

Saadat Ali, 181, 202. 
Sabuk Tigin, 17. 



Sacrifices, human, amon^ 

Khonds, 202. 
Sadar Courts, abolition of. 214. 
Sadar Diwani Adalut, 167. 
Safdar Ali, 152. 
Sahu, 123, 124, 129. 
St. Thomas, 54. 
St. Thome, battle of, 154. 
Saisunaga dynasty, 23. 
Saiva orders, 89. 
Saivas, 20, 38, 89. 
Saka era, 46. 

,, invasion, 43. 

,, satraps, 45-47. 
Sakas, 43-46, 76. 
Sakasthana, 43. 
Sakta, 89. 
Sakti, 89. 

Sakunta/a (Kalidasa), 65. 
Sakyas, 31, 33, 39. 
Salabat Jang, 155. 
Salar Jang, Nawab Sir, 210. 
Salbai, treaty of, 171, 172. 
Sale, Major-Gen. Sir Robert 

Henry, 198, 199. 
Salim, see Jahangir. 
Salt tax, reduction of, 223. 
Samaveda, 19. 
Sambhaji, 120, 129. 
Sam hit a (Charaka), 53. 
Samhitas (collection), 19. 
Samsara, 21. 
Samudra Gupta, 56, 80. 

,, ,, revival of 

horse sacrifice by, 63. 
Sanchi, 54. 
Sangala, 24. 

Sangrama Simha, Rana, 108. 
Sankara Acharya, 89, 90. 
Sankhya philosophy, 38, 52. 
Sanskrit language and literature, 

revival of, 64. 
Sanskrit literature, 19, 36, 37, 

64, 65, 89, 105. 
Sanskrit, rise of, as a literary 

language, 36. 
Santhals, 2. 

Sapta-Sataka (Hala),49. 
Sarva Darsana Sangraha 

(Madhava), 105. 
Sassanian dynasty, 47. 
Sat.\karni Gautamiputra, 4q. 
Satara, annexation of, 205. 

fort of, 124. 
Satavahana dynasty, 50. 
Sati among Khonds, 202. 

,. suppression of, 194. 
Satiyas, 48. 
Satraps, 25, 44-46, 49. 
Satrapy, rise of the great, 47. 
Saurashtra, kingdom of, knowrr 

as the Great Satrapy, 47, 
Savana, 105. 
Sayana, 105. 

Sayyid Abdulla, 123, 129. 
Sayyid Dynasty, 99. 
Sayyid Husain Ali, 123, 129. 
Sciences, 53. 
Sculpture, 53. 
Scythians, 41, 43. 
Second (Gupta) empire, 55, etseq 
Second empire, division of, into 

north and south, 61. 
Segauli, treaty of, 190. 
Seleukos Nik.ator, 26. 
Sena dynasty, 75. 
Senapati , 76. 

Sepoy Mutiny, 203, 208-12, 230. 
Seringapatam, fall of, 166. 

,, siege of, 180. 

Seven Years' War, 156, 161. 
Shah Alam, 183. 
Shah Alam II., 125, 133, 135, 

164, 168, 183. 
Shah Jahan, 115-117. 

civil war among sons 
of, 1 16. 

orold coin of, 1 17. 

imprisonment of, 117 

peacock throne of, 
Shah Shuja, 197, 198, 199. 
Shah Zaman, 142, 18:. 
Shahnama (Firdausi), 91. 



Shahji Bhonsla, 127. 
Shamsuddin Altamsh, 94. 

,, Ilyas, 1 01. 

Shans, 4. 

Sharqui dynasty, 100. 
Suv-K Ai.1, Amir of Afghanistan, 

215, 218. 
Sher Khan, assumption of title 

of Sher Shah by, 108. 
Sher Khan Lodi, 150. 
Sher Shah, death of, 109. 
Shodasa, 44. 
Shore, Sir }ohn, 179. 
Shuja, defeat of, at Agra, 117 
9huja-ud-Daulah, 164. 
,. death of, 169. 
Siddhartha, see Buddha. 
Sighelmus, Bishop of Sher- 

hurn, 147. 
Sikandar-as-Sani , 96. 


Sikh army, disbandment of, 203. 
Sikh war, first, 201. 

,, ,, second, 203. 
Sikhs, confederacy of the, 139. 

,, origin of the, 140. 

persecution of the, bv the 
Mug-hals, 140. 

,, religion of the, 140. 

,, struggle of the, with 
Ahmad Shah Abdali 141 . 
Sikkim, annexation of, 204, 
SiLADiTYA, q/J/a/7f a, dethrone- 
ment of, 61. 
SiLADiTYA VI., of Gujarat, 76. 
Silidars, 135. 
Simharaja, 71. 
Simla, made summer residence 

of the Governor- General, 195. 
SiMUKA, 48. 
Sindh, annexation of, 200. 

,, earl}' history of, 85. 

,, embassy to, 187. 
SiNDHiA, 132, 133. 

SiNGHANA, 79, 80. 

Siraj-^d-Daulah, 160, 161. 
,, accession to throne of, 160 

Siraj-ttd-Daulah, death of, 162. 
Sisupalabadha (Magha), 90. 
Sita, 16. 
Siva, 3, ii, 20. 
SivAji, 119, 188. 

,, birth of, 127. 

,, death of, 129. 

,, enthronement of, 128. 
made Viceroy of the 
Deccan, 128. 

present of gifts to, by the 
English, 128. 

,, ,, ,, ,, the French, 128. 

,, raid of Karnatic by, 128. 

,, sack of Surat by, 128. 
Skanda Gupta, 58. 
Slave dynasty, 94. 
Sleeman, Sir William Henry, 

Smith, Major-Gen. ]o?,e.\A\, 166. 
Smriti (tradition^, 37. 
Snake, cult of, 3, 20. 
Sobraon, battle of, 201. 
Social condition, 37. 
conference, 235. 

,, progress, 234. 
Solanki dynasty, 76. 
Soma, 10, II. 
Somesvara, 72, 79. 
Somnath, sack of temple of, 88. 
Southern empire under the Early 

Chalukyas, 77. 
Srauta siitras (manuals for 

performing sacrifices), 37. 
Sriramgaon, battle of, 155. 
Sri Satakarni, 49. 
Sritti (revelation), 37. 
States, annexation of, by Dal- 

housie, 205. 

„ formation of, 15. 
Stewart, Sir Donald, 219. 
Strabo, 82. 
Strato, 43. 
Stupa, view of the oldest, at 

Sanchi, 33. 
Subahs, division of empire into, 

by Akbar. 1 13. 




Subsidiary treaties, system of, 
185. , 

SUDAS, 14. 

Sudras, 8, g, 17, 18, 55. 
Sunga empire, 44. 
Sungabhritya, 44. 
Supreme Council, remodelling- 

of, 126. 
Sur dynasty, 108. 
Sura, 10, 

Surashtra kingdom, 47. 
Surat, establishment of French 

factory at, 149. 

,, sack of, by Sivaji, iig. 

,, treaty of, 170. 
Surdeslimitklit, 139. 
SuRi, 92. 

Surji Arjangaon, treaty of, 183. 
Sursubahdars, 138. 
SusuRMAN, 49. 


Sutanati, grant of, to the Eng- 
lish by Aurangzeb, 120. 
Sutherland, Col. John, 195. 
Sutra period, 37. 
Sutras (manuals), 37. 
Subandhu, 65. 

Tagore, Dwarkanath, 194. 

Tahmash, Shah of Persia, 109. 

Tahqiqual Hind (Alberuni), 89. 

Tai tribe, ii, 4. 

Tailapa II., 79. 

Taj Mahal, 115. 

Tajiks, 92, 93. 

Talikot, battle of, 102. 

Tamil language, 22. 

Tamils, 2. 

Tanka, 106. 

Tantia Topi, 210, 212. 

T antra, 64. 

Tantra Vartika (Sankara Acha- 

rya), 90. 
Taxila University, 38. 
Tea, 202, 228. 
Telegraph, 207, 229. 
Telingana, 84. 
Telugu language, 22, 48. 
Thagi, suppression of, 194, 

Thags, 194. 

Thaneswar, 61, 72, 93. 

Thebaw, King of Burma, 221. 

Third Empire, dissolution of, 

Third Indian or first Muham- 

madan Empire, 92, et seq. 


Tibet, 62, 144, 

,, Commercial expedition to, 

Tibeto-Burmans, ii. 
TiMUR, 99, 107, 126, 142. 

,, house of, 

,, invasionof India by, 107. 
Tipu, 166, 171, 172, 176, 177, 

178, 180, 181, 182, 185, 186. 

,, death of, 180. 
Tirah Campaign, 222. 
ToDAR Mall, 113. 
Toramana, 58, 59, 76, 
Trade, 228. 

Transmigration, doctrine of, 21. 
Treaties, system of subsidiary, 

Trikalinga, 84. 
Trilochanapala, 71. 
Tripitaka (three baskets), 37. 
TuGHLAa, Ghiyasuddin, 97 

,, Muhammad II, 97. 

Tughlaq Shahi dynasty, 97. 


Turki conquest, 86. 

,, empire, condition of the 

people under the, 103. 
,, second invasion, 435. 
,, Shahis, 86., 
,, Slaves, 94. 




Udai Singh, no. 
Udayin, 23. 
Uighur or Usun, 46. 
Umachand (Amin or Amir 

Chand), 161. 
Universities, 38, 207, 222, 232. 
Upanishad, 20. 
Upper Burma, annexation of, 

Urdu, 106. 
Uttar mimanisa, 52. 

Vaccination, 238, 
Vaisali, 15, 23, 30. 
Vaiseshika, 53. 
Vaisnava orders, 89. 
Vaisnavas, 20, 38, 89, 105. 
Vaisya, 8, 17, 18. 
Vakpatiraja, 69. 
Vallabhi kingdom, separation 
of, from northern empire, 62. 
Vamana, 65. 
Vans Agnew, 203. 
Vansittart, Henry, 163. 
Varaha Mihira, 64. 
Varuna, 20. 

Vasavadatta (Subandhuj, 05. 
Vasco da Gama, 103, 145, 146- 
Vasishtiputra, 49. 
Vasudeva Sungabhritya, 44, 


Vasumitra, 43. 

Vatsaraja, 61, 69, 70, 73. 

Vayu Purayia, 64. 

Vedanta, 21, 38, 52, 90. 

Vedas, 105. 

Veddas, 2. 

Vedic iiymns, 3, 9. 

Vellore Mutiny, 186. 

Vengi, 78. 

Verelst, Henry, 166. 

Vernalular press.f reedom of , 1 92, 

Versailles, treaty of, I57. ^1-- 

Viceroy, creation ot Go\ernor- 

General as, 213. 
Victoria, Queen, assumption 

of title of Empress of 
India by, 218. 

,, death of, 222. 
Vidarbha, 16, 42. 
Videha, 16. 

ViDYAPATI, 105. 

Vigraharaja, knoivii as Bisal 

Deo, 71. 
Villa ras (monasteries), 54. 
Vijayanagar, 102. 


Vijaya Sena, 75. 
Vikrama era, 45, 60. 
Vikramaditya, 45. 

„ Kashmir coins of, 60. 

,, "nine gems" of the court 
of, 64. 
Vikramaditya H., 78. 
Vimaladitya, 82. 
Vishnu, ii, 15, 20, 63, 80. 
Vishnu Vardhana, 76, 77. 

,, ,, coin of, 59. 

,, ,, column of victory of, 59. 


Wahabis, 214. 
Wandivvash, siege of, 171. 
Wang Hiuen Tse, 62. 
Warangal, 84, 96. 
Wargaon, convention of, 170. 
Warnak Rao, 182. 
Wasil Muhammad, 188, 190. 
Waterloo, battle of, 180. 
W'atson, Admiral Charles, 161. 
Wellesley, Gen. Str Arthur, 

see Wellington. 
Wellesley, Richard Colley, 
Marquis, 1 80, 202. 
,, work of, 185. 
Wellington, Duke of, Arthur 

Wellesley, 180. 
Western Chalukyas, 82. 
Western Marches, 71, 92, 93, 99, 



White Huns, 58. 

William of Malmsbury, 

WiLLOUGHBY, Sir Hugh, 147. 
WiLLOUGHBY, Lieut, 210. 
Writing, introduction in India 

of art of, 39. 


Yadava dynasty, 79. 
Yadava Singhana, 84. 
Yagnasena Satakarni, 42. 
Vajurveda, 19. 

Yakub Khan, Amir of Afghani- 
stan, 219. 

Yasodharman, 59. 

,, assumption of name of 
Vishnu Vardhana by, 60. 
Yasovarman, 69, 70, 72. 
Yendabu, treaty of, 192, 204. 
Yoga, 20, 38, 52. 
Yoga sutra (Patanjali), 38. 
Yudhisthira, 14 
Yuechi, 43, 46. 


Zafar Khan, see MuzafTar 1. 
Zamorin, the (Hindu Raja of 

Calicut), 145. 
Zeman Shah, see Shah Zaman. 
Zemindars, origin of, 167. 


Hoernle, August Friedrich 




A history of India